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劍的起源和功能演變過程

添加時間:2019/10/12

  摘要:劍,短兵器,是中國古代冷兵器時代的作戰工具,在東方文化的影響下,演繹了由術至道的文化之旅。本文運用歷史學學理,通過文獻資料法與邏輯分析法等研究方法,在追溯劍的流變進程中,發現,劍在進行著自我的蛻變和升華,它是久經沙場上的嗜血之劍,也是皇權貴族號令天下的王者之劍,更是翻飛于筆墨山水之間庶民之劍,在被東方文化沉淀、洗滌、浸潤和滋養之后,由最低端的殺人器物,演變成最高層次的文化符號,劍在中國人心中占據的地位是其他器物無法企及的。

  關鍵詞:劍; 歷史; 流變; 文化;

  1、前言

  《BINGJI》YOUYUN:“MINWUXIANGJUE,ERYOUWUYI。”WUSHUZAIZHONGGUOJIQIANNIANDELISHICHANGHEZHONG,YIZHIZHANJUZHUJUZUQINGZHONGDELISHIDIWEI,CONGYUANSHISHEHUIRENLEIDESHENGCHANSHIJIAN,DAOHOULAIDEYUSHOUDOUYIJIBULUOZHIJIANDEZHANZHENG,JIERXINGCHENGJUYOUJIJINEIHANDEWUSHU。ZAILISHILIUBIANJINCHENGZHONG,ZHONGGUOWUSHULIJINGQIANNIANDELISHIJIDIANHOU,ZHUJIANBEIFUYULEWENHUADENEIHAN,ZAISUZHUWUSHUJIJIZUOYONGDETONGSHI,YEKAISHICONGMINZUWENHUADEGAODUZHONGXINSHENSHIWUSHUDEDUTELISHIJIAZHI。

劍的起源和功能演變過程

  JIAN,ZUOWEIYIZHONGBINGQI,CONGGUDAISUSHAZHANCHANGSHANGDESHARENLIQI,DAOSHIJINGJIETOUDEYULEWUJU;CONGQUJINGTONGYOUDESISHILOUXIANG,DAOWEIGAOQUANZHONGWANGDEHUANGGONGFUYA。JIANLVLILEYOUSHENGCHANZHISHENGHUOZAIZHIJUNSHI,YOUSHUZHIDAO、YOUJIZHIWENHUA,YOUDIJIZHIGAOJI,YOUDANXIANZHIFUXIANDEYANJINLUJING[1]。CHENGWEISHENFENHEQUANLIDEXIANGZHENG,ZAIYANYIZISHENHUALITUIBIANDETONGSHI,YEBEIJUANKEZHUBUKEMOMIEDESHIDAILUOYIN。SUIZHURENLEIWENMINGDEJINBU,JIANZHUJIANTUNQUQIBINGLENGDEMIANJU,BEIFUYULEDUOZHONGDEWENHUAYUNWEI,YOUJUWUYANYUSHUODAO“ZIGUWENRENDUOAIWU,CONGLAISHUJIANSHIYIJIA,”JIANSUOFUDAIDEWENHUAQIXISUIZHIYUELAIYUENONGHOU,CHENGWEILESHENGRENCHONGSHANGDE“YAQI”,JUNZIZHUIPENGDE“BAIRENZHIJUN”。

  2、劍的起源說

秒速赛车6码计划   JIANDEQIYUANKEWEILISHIJIUYUAN。GUANYUJIANDECHANSHENGKAOGUJIERENWEISHITOUSHIZHIJIANDEYUANSHICAILIAO,JU《TAIBAIYINJING·QIXIEPIANDISISHIYI》DUIBINGQICHANSHENGQINGKUANGDEJIZAI,“SHENNONGSHIZHISHI,YISHIWEIBING,CHIYOUZHISHI,SHUOJINWEIBING”[2]。ERXUEJIEZEYOUBUTONGDEGUANDIAN。JU《LIJI》JIZAI:“JIANQISHIYUSHANGDAI,QICHUJINYOUSHIYULIMIZHICHANG。”《YIZHOUSHU·KEYINJIE》YEJIZAI:“WUWANGKESHANGSHI,WUBIZHISHIBIANSHICHIJIANERXING。XIZHOUDAJUNGONGRUCHAOGEHOU,WUWANGXIANRU,SHIWANGSUO。NAIKESHEZHI,SANFAERHOUXIACHE,ERJIZHIYIQINGLV,ZHANZHIYIHUANGYUE,ZHEXIANZHUTAIBAI。”ERQINGLVQISHIJIUSHIZHIBAOJIANDEMINGCHENG,《SHIJI·ZHOUBENJI》JIZAI:“SIMAQIANGAI‘QINGLV’WEI‘QINGJIAN’。”GUANYUJIANDECHANSHENGZHONGSHUOFENYUN,DANSHIZHISHAOWOMENNENGBAWOYIDIAN,JIANDECHUSHISHIJIANYIJIU,ZAILISHIDEZOUXIANGZHONGBANYANZHUZHONGYAODEJIAOSE。

  3、劍的功能演變

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秒速赛车6码计划   ZIYINSHANGZHICHUNQIUZHANGUOSHIQI,JIANJIUSHIJINXINGXIWUJISHADEZHONGYAOGONGJU。CHUNQIUZHANGUOSHIQI,QUNXIONGBINGQI,WEILESHIYINGZHANZHENGXUYAO,JIANDEZHIZUOZAIZHEYISHIQIYEDADAODINGSHENGSHIQI。《ZHOULI·DONGGUANKAOGONGJI》ZAI:“WUYUEZHIJINXI,CICAIZHIMEIZHEYE。”RUHUBEIJIANGLINGWANGSHANMUCHUTUDEYUEWANGGOUJIANJIAN,TONGCHANG55.6LIMI,SHENMANSHILINGXINGWEN,JINGECHUYOULIANGXINGWUZHUANMINGWEN:“YUEWANGJIUQIAN(GOUJIAN)ZIZHA(ZUO)YONGSHU(JIAN)。”KUAYUELIANGQIANDUONIANDELISHIZHIHOU,CHUTUSHIYIRANFENGLIWUBI,JIANDEZHIZUOGONGYIBUJINDEDAOLEPENGBODEFAZHAN,ZAIZHANZHENGZHONGDEZUOYONGYEDEDAOLETUXIAN。

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  GONGYUAN221NIANQINWANGSAOLIUHE,YITONGTIANXIAHOU,WEILEFANGZHIZAIQIZHANLUAN,DUITIANXIABINGQIJINXINGLEGUANLI。《GUOQINLUN》ZHONGYOUSHU:“QINSHIHUANGSHOUTIANXIAZHIBING, JUZHIXIANYANG, XIAOFENGZHUJU, YIWEIJINRENSHIER, YIRUOTIANXIAZHIMIN,”ZHEYIJUDONGMUDEZAIYUFANGZHIBAOLUAN,KEJIANJIANDANGSHISHIZHANCHANGZHUYAOBINGQI。

秒速赛车6码计划   DAOLELIANGHANSHIQI,JIANRENGRANSHIJINJULIZUOZHANDESHOUXUAN,LIUBANGZHANBAISHEQIYI,SHOUNAYIBACHIXIAOBAOJIANZONGHENGTIANXIA,JIANLIHANCHAO,ZHEYIKUAIZHIRENKOUDEGUSHIKEWEIWURENBUXIAO。LIANGHANSHIQI,XIONGNUYAJING,YINXIONGNUSHANQIMAZUOZHAN,ERHANBINGSHANCHANGDIMIANZUOZHAN,ZAIZUOZHANZHIZHONGCHULEYUANJULIDEGONGSHIZHIWAI,ZHUYAODEJIUSHIJIANLE,YOUCIKEJIAN,JIANZAIHANCHAOSHIQIYEFAHUIZHUBUKEGULIANGDEZUOYONG。

  DAOXIHANMOQI,QINGTONGQIYIJINGBEITIEBINGQIWANQUANQUDAILE。ZAIZHANCHANGSHANG,YOUYUQIBINGCHONGFENGXIANZHENDESUDUHENKUAI,MASHANGDEDUANBINGQIXIANRANYAOZHUZHONGYIFALI、SHANYUKANDETEXING,ZHEGESHIQICHUXIANLEHUANSHOUDAO,TAJIHOURENBO,JIZHONGYOUFENG,LIYUPIKAN,QIEHOUSHIBUYIZHEDUAN。HUANSHOUDAOJIANBEIQINGLAI,JINERHANDONGLEJIANZAIJUNSHIZHENZHANZHONGDEDIWEI。MAOYUANYI《WUBEIZHI》SUOYUN:“GUZHIBINGZHE,BIYANJIAN,JINBUYONGYUZHEN,YISHIQICHUANYE。YUBOSOUHAIWAISHIDEZHI。”SUIHOUCHANGDAOZHUJIANQUJIANERDAIZHI,YOUCIJIANZHUJIANTUICHUZHANCHANG。

  3.2、HAOLINGSIHAI:WANGZHEZHIJIAN

秒速赛车6码计划   DANGJIANKUAYUELEQIWUCENGMIANDEJINGU,ZAILISHIDEXINGFENGXUEYUZHONGZHUJIANBEIFUYUWENHUADENEIHANSHI,JIANYIJINGBEIRENGEHUA, TACHENGLEDIWEIYUSHENFENDEXIANGZHENG。

  《ZHENGYI》JIZAI:“CHUNQIUGUANLIGEDEDAIJIAN。NEISHI,JIANYIBEISHIWEISHIDAFUMENBIXUZHANGWODEWUBEIZHIJI,KEYIPEIDAIZIYOUCHURUMIAOTANG, SHIDAFUPEIJIANBUJINJINSHIWEILEFANGSHEN,YOUDEZHUIQIUPEISHIJINGMEI,BINGFUYULEXIANGYINGSHEHUIJIECENGSHENFENYUYI,YICHENGWEIQIZHONGZHONGYAOYUANYIN。WANGZHEZHIJIANZAIDIAOKEJINGMEISHOUMIANWENSHI、FUZAJIHETUXINGDETONGSHI,HUIZAIJIANSHOUHEJIANQIAOQIANXIANBAOSHI、JINYINSI、MEIYUDENGGUIZHONGZHIWU,YIZHANGXIANSHENFENGAOGUI,ERDAGUANGUIZUZEHUIYIJINYINYUSHIZHUBAOZHUANGSHIPEIZHI[5]。ZHUANGZIZAI《SHUOJIANPIAN》BAJIANFENWEISANZHONG,JI“YOUTIANZIJIAN,YOUZHUHOUJIAN,YOUSHURENJIAN”[6],KEJIANBUTONGDEJIANDAIBIAOZHUBUTONGDESHENFENDENGJI。

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  DAOLETANGSONGSHIQI,ZHEZHONGSHEHUIJIEJIHEWENHUAFENCENGYIRANCUNZAI,JIANZHIYIRANYURENDESHEHUIDIWEIYUQUANLIXIUQIXIANGGUAN。WANGGONGGUIZHOUMENHUIANZHAOGUIDINGXIEDAIZHUXIANGQIANYUZIJISHENFENXIANGFUSHIPINDEPEIJIANSHANGCHAO,“YIPIN,YUQIJIAN,PEISHANXUANYU。ERPIN, JINZHUANGJIAN,PEISHUICANGYU。SANPINJIKAIGUOZINAN,WUDENGSAN(SAN)PINMINGHAOHOUSUISI、WUPIN,BINGYINZHUANGJIAN,PEISHUICANGYU, SHIZHONGYIXIA,TONGZHILANGYISHANG, PEIWEIZEXIANGJIAN”[7]。KEWEISHIDENGJIXIANMING。LINGJU《WUJINGZONGYAO》JIZAI,SONGTINGGUIDING,DANFANDAJIANGCHUZHENGSHI,HUANGDIDOUYAOSHANGSIYIBABAOJIAN,YANJIZHENGLING,YIZHENJUNWEI。

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秒速赛车6码计划   SHIZHIMINGQINGSHIQI,JIANCHENGWEIHUANGDIDEYUYONGLIQI。SHANGFANGBAOJIANSUICHUZIQINHANSHIQI,DANXINGQIDAOZHEZEZAIMINGQINGSHIQI,MINGCHENGZUZHUYUANZHANGCHANGYISHANGFANGBAOJIANYISIZHIYUQINCHADACHEN,YUYI“ZHENZHIQINLIN”,JUYOUXIANZHANHOUZOUDEZHISHANGQUANLI。BIRUWANLIERSHINIAN,NINGXIABEIBAIPANLUAN,WANLIHUANGDI“YONGSHANGSHUXINGYAN,SIXUECENGSHANGFANGJIANDUZHAN”,HOUYOUYOUGANSUXUNFUXIEMENGXIONGTIDAIWEIXUECENG,“YISISHANGFANGJIAN”,ZUIHOUXIEMENGXIONGJUEHEGUANCHENG,GONGPOCHENGCHI,“JINZHUBAIDANGJIJIANGRENERQIAN”[8]。

  3.3、XIUXIANYULE:SHUMINZHIJIAN

秒速赛车6码计划   XIUXIANYULEZAIHENZAOJIUYOUCHUXIAN,GUYOULIUYI:“LI、LE、SHE、YU、SHU、SHU”,SUIWEIJIAOYUZHIYONG,QUEYEYOUXIUSHENYANGXINGZHISHI,《SHIJING》YOUYUN“CHAOYINFENGYASONG,MUCHANGFUBIXING,QIUKANYUCHONGLE,CHUNGUANCAOMUQING。”JIAN,CHULEZAIZHANCHANGSHADIYIWAI,TAYESHIRENMENSHENGHUOZHIYUDEYULEGONGJU。

  CHUNQIUSHIQI,KONGZIDEXUESHENGZILUSHANCHANGJIANDAO,“ZILURONGFUJIANYUKONGZI,BAJIANERWUZHI”。KEJIANDANGSHIJIANWUDECHUXINGYIJINGXINGCHENG。

  QINCHAOMOQI,JIANWUYIJINGCHUXIANZAISHEJIAOCHANGHEZHIZHONG,JIUGUOSANXUNZHIHOU,BANZHUYINLEYIWUJIANLAIZHUXING,《SHIJI·XIANGYUBENJI》JIZAI“ZHUANGZERUWEISHOU。SHOUBI,YUE:‘JUNWANGYUPEIGONGYIN,JUNZHONGWUYIWEILE,QINGYIJIANWU。’XIANGWANGYUE:‘NUO’。XIANGZHUANGBAJIANQIWU,XIANGBOYIBAJIANQIWU。CHANGYISHENYIBIPEIGONG,ZHUANGBUDEJI”。ZHEYIDUANKUAIZHIRENKOUDELISHIJIAHUAZHIJINLINGRENCHENGZAN,SUIRANDANGSHIXIANGZHUANGSUOWUDEJIANDAIYOUYIDINGDESHASHANGXING,DANSHIWUJIANQUEYEDAIYOUYIWUZHUXING,HONGTUOQIFENDEZUOYONG,KEJIANJIANWUYIJINGDAIYOUGUANSHANGXINGDEYISHUSECAI。

  TANGCHAOSHIQI,SIHAISHENGPINGTIANXIADATONG,JIANWUZAIZHEGESHIQIYEDADAOZHONGGUOJIANWENHUADEZUIGAOCHAO。DUFUZAI《GUANGONGSUNDANIANGDIZIWUJIANQIXING》ZHONGMIAOHUIDAO:“XIYOUJIARENGONGSUNSHI,YIWUJIANQIDONGSIFANG,GUANZHERUSHANSEJUSANG,TIANDIWEIZHIJIUDIANG。”YIJI“TANGCHAOSANJUE”ZHIZHONG,PEIZHANGJIANSHUZHIGAOCHAO,BEIHOURENCHENGWEI“JIANSHENG”。TANGCHAOSHIRENWANGWEIZHEYANGZANMEIDAO:“YAOJIANBAOJIANQIXINGWEN,BEISHANGDIAOGONGBAIZHANXUN。JIANSHUOYUNZHONGQINXIALU,SHIZHITIANSHANGYOUJIANGJUN。”ERLIBAICHULESHISHIRENZHIWAI,YESHIYIGEJIANKE,SHENGPINGZONGSHIJIANBULISHEN,SHENBULIJIAN。SONGDAI《XUANHESHUPU》ZHONGYUN:“(TAIBAI)MAOSUIZHITONGSHU,JICHANGHAOJIJIAN,LUOLUOBUJISHU。”YUGUANGZHONGZAI《YILIBAI》ZHONGXIEDAO:“JIURUCHOUCHANG,QIFENNIANGCHENGYUEGUANG,YUXIADESANFENHUWEIJIANQI,XIUKOUYITUBIANSHIBANGESHENGTANG。”KEJIANLIBAIBUDEZHISHIYEHUIYIJIUJIAOCHOU,YIJIANWEIWU,LANGMANWUBI。

  SONGCHAOSHIHUOQIYUNYONGYUJUNSHIZHANZHENG,SHIZHONGGUOWUSHUFAZHANSHISHANGDEZHUANZHESHIQI,JUNSHIWUYIZHUJIANSHUAILUO。MINGQINGZHIHOU,ZHENZHENGDEJIANWUYISHUJIBENYIJINGXIAOSHENGNIJI。

  SHIZHIJINRI,GUSHIDESHARENLIQIYIJINGCHEDITUICHUJUNSHIWUTAI,TATUNQUMANSHENHANQI,BEILISHIFUYUXINDESHIMING,ZAIXIUXIANYULEFANGMIANDUSHUYIZHI,ZAIYISHUSHANGZHANGXIANCHUDUTEDEMEILI,CHENGWEIYASUGONGSHANGDEXIUXIANZHIJU。JIANDEXIUXIANZAIYUJIANKANGJIAOXIANGHUIYINGDETONGSHI,GENGDUODESHIZAICHANSHIYIZHONGWENHUAXIANXIANGHEZHONGGUOYIXIANG,TASHIWUZHESHOUZHONGDEYOUXINGZHIJIAN,JIANSUISUIZHUENADEWUZIFENFEI,SILINGDONGDELIUSU,SHIZAIKUXINGUYIDEXUNMIYIZHONGJUNZINEIXINZHIYUE,TAYESHIJIANYIZHIRENXINZHONGDEWUXINGZHIJIAN,ZHENGSUOWEI“SHINIANMOYIJIAN,ZHIDAICHUQIAOSHI”。

  4、結論

秒速赛车6码计划   BAOJIANFENGCONGMOLICHU,MEIHUAXIANGZIKUHANLAI。JIANDELISHIYANBIANCHONGFENFANYINGCHUZHONGGUOSHEHUIDEJIECENGGUANXI、WENHUAQUXIANGHEXINGWEIMOSHI,JIANZUOWEIDUTEDEWENHUAXIANXIANG,JUYOUYIDINGDELISHIXING,ZAIBUTONGDELISHISHIQI,XINGCHENGLEBUTONGDEWENHUARENTONG,DAOZHIGEYIDEXIAOFEIQUXIANG[9]。ZHUIYIJIANDELIUBIANZHILV,TAYANZHULISHIDEZONGXIANGERLAI,ZAISUSHADEZHANCHANGYONGREXUEXIQUEHANQI,ZAIQUANLIDEZUIGAOCENGHAOLINGTIANXIA,ZAISHIJINGLOUTAIJIANSHANGXIAFANFEI,CHENGWEIJIZUOZHANYUSHANGWANDE“YAQI”,CHENGWEIJIANJUWUHUAYUYIHUADEWENHUATIXI。SHIZHIJINRIRENGRANSHIRENHUIWEIWUQIONG,RANERQUEZAOYITUNQUHANQI,CHAOTUOQIWUSHUXINGDEBENYUAN,CHENGWEIZHONGYIYUJIANRENDEDAIMINGCI。

  參考文獻
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  [2] 謝克寧.白話太白陰經[M].北京:氣象出版社, 1992:15.
  [3]周緯.中國兵器史稿[M].北京:三聯書店.1957:139.
  [4]吳殳·手臂錄[M]·太原:山西科學技術出版社, 2006.
  [5]戴國斌.劍的文化傳記[J].體育與科學, 2009, 30, (5) :11-14.
  [6]方勇,譯注.莊子[M].北京:中華書局,2010.
  [7] 魏徵.隋書·禮儀志[M].北京:中華書局, 2008.
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