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硬皮腫腿蜂雌蜂的生殖策略探析

添加時間:2019/10/11

  摘要:秒速赛车6码计划[目的]子代窩群大小和性比是聚寄生蜂在寄主上產卵的重要決策,寄主資源量是影響該決策的主要因素之一。本研究旨在探明準社會性硬皮腫腿蜂屬(Sclerodermus)的生殖策略。[方法]以管氏腫腿蜂(S. guani Xiao et Wu)為對象,以不同體質量的青楊天牛(Saperda populnca L.)幼蟲為寄主,人為控制窩群大小(初孵幼蟲數量),設置不同水平處理,觀測子代蜂的存活率、性比和體型大小,以推測最適的生殖策略。[結果]在自然窩群(大于等于50頭)下,子代蜂存活至成蟲期的比例隨寄主體質量增大而提高;但在人為減小窩群的幾個處理(10、20、30和40頭)中,子代蜂發育至成蟲羽化的存活率均很高,且與寄主體質量無關,4個處理之間亦沒有顯著差異。窩群大小不影響子代蜂性比,寄主體質量也無影響,性比均始終保持極端偏雌的比例。羽化出的成蟲雌蜂體質量隨子代蜂窩群增大而線性減小,而且該趨勢不受寄主體質量的影響。[結論]管氏腫腿蜂可能采用“產固定性比且略大的窩群”的生殖策略。

  關鍵詞:秒速赛车6码计划準社會行為; 聚寄生蜂; 體外寄生蜂; 窩卵決策; 性比;

  JUJISHENGFENGZAICHANLUANSHIZUOCHUDEZHUYAOJUECEZHIYISHI,ZAI1TOUJIZHUSHANGCHANDUOSHAOLILUAN———WOLUANSHU(clutch size)。GENJULackZUISHIWOLUANSHUJIASHUOYUCE,JISHENGFENGSUOCHANWOLUANSHUYINGSHIQICONGZHONGHUODEDESHIHEDUZUIDAHUA[1]。DUIXUDUOZHONGLEIJISHENGFENGDEYANJIUFAXIAN,CIFENG(MUFENG)SUOCHANWOLUANSHUYUJIZHUTIXINGDAXIAOCHENGZHENGXIANGGUANXIANXINGGUANXI,ZHICHIZUISHIWOLUANSHUJIASHUO[2]。DANCONGZIDAISHIHEDUSHIJIAOKAN,YOUYUJIZHUZIYUANLIANGSHIGUDINGDE,GUZIDAIFENGSUOHUODEDESHIHEDUSUIWOLUANSHUZENGDAERJIANXIAO。SUOYI,CHANLUANCIFENGYUZIDAIFENGZHIJIANZAISHIHEDULIYISHANGCUNZAIMAODUN,JISUOWEI“QINZICHONGTU(parent-offspring conflict)”,DANZAIZIRANXUANZEYALIXIAYANHUACHUDEJINHUAWENDINGCELVESHISHUANGFANGDELIYIDADAOMOUZHONGDONGTAIPINGHENG[3,4,5]。DUIYUJUJISHENGFENGERYAN,CHULEWOLUANSHUWAI,ZIDAIXINGBISHILINGYIZHONGYAOJUECE,YINWEICIFENGKEKONGZHIZIDAIFENGDEXINGBIE:CHANERBEITIDESHOUJINGLUANWEICIXING,CHANDANBEITIDELUANWEIXIONGXING。YOUYUJUJISHENGFENGYINGJINQINFANZHI,GENJU“HamiltonJUBUPEIOUJINGZHENG”LILUNYUCE,ZAIWUTONGLEICIFENGJINGZHENGDEQINGKUANGXIACHANPIANCIXINGBIDEZIDAIFENGQUN;ZAIYOUTONGLEIJINGZHENGDEQINGKUANGXIA,ZENGDAXIONGXINGBILI[6]。ZAIYINGPIZHONGTUIFENGSHU(Sclerodermus)ZHONG,CIFENGSHIZHONGCHANJIDUANPIANCIXINGBIDEZIDAIFENGFENGQUN[7]。QIJIN,DUIZHELEIYINGZHUNSHEHUIXINGWEIDEJISHENGFENGDESHENGZHICELVE,ZHIZHISHENSHAO。

秒速赛车6码计划   YINGPIZHONGTUIFENG(ZHONGTUIFENGKEBethylidae)SHISHUMUZHUGANHAICHONGDEZHONGYAOJISHENGXINGTIANDI,ZAIWOGUOGUANGFANYONGYUSENLINZHUGANHAICHONGTIANNIUDESHENGWUFANGZHI[8,9,10]。ZICONG1928NIANWheeler[11]SHOUCIJIZAIYINGPIZHONGTUIFENGJUYOUFUYUZIDAIXINGWEIYILAI,DUIYINGPIZHONGTUIFENGDEYANJIUZHUYAOWEIRAOSHENGWUFANGZHIYINGYONGJINXING。JINNIANLAI,DUIQIFUYUXINGWEIDELILUNYANJIURIJIANZENGDUO,FAXIANMUFENG(JIAOPEIGUODECIFENG)FUYUDUIZIDAIFENGSHUNLIWANCHENGFAYUJUYOUZHONGYAOZUOYONG[12,13],DANMUFENGYINCIKENENGSHIQUXUNZHAOXINJIZHUDEJIHUI[14]。TangDENG[7]ZHENDUIMUFENGZHIJIANHEZUOFUYUDEJIZHITICHULEYIGEXINDEJIASHUO———MUFENGHEZUOYOULIYUZHIFUBINGJISHENGLIYONGTIXINGJIAODADEJIZHU,BINGTONGGUOSHIYANCHUBUZHENGSHILEGAIJIASHUO。RUOGANJIEFENGSHIYANYANJIUJIEGUOFAXIAN,ZAIGUANSHIZHONGTUIFENG(Sclerodermus guani Xiao et Wu)ZHONGHEZUOLIYONGJIZHUDEMUFENGSUOFENTANDEZIDAIFENGSHUSHAOYUQIDANDUJISHENGSUODEDAODEZIDAIFENGSHU[7,14]。DAOZHIZHEYICHAYIDEYUANYINSHIDUOFANGMIANDE,LIRU:HEZUODEMUFENGKONGZHICHANLUANSHULIANG;HEZUODEMUFENGZAIFUYUZHONGKONGZHIZIDAICUNHUOSHU(RU:SHAYOU);ZIDAIFENGZAIFAYUZHONGXIANGHUJINGZHENG;HUOZHETONGSHICAIYONGYISHANGJIGESHENGZHICELVE。ZAIDANGQIANSHANGWUFAJIANBIEMUFENGYUZIDAIFENGQINYUANGUANXIDEQINGKUANGXIA,NANYIMINGQUEJIANBIEZHONGTUIFENGCAIYONGNAYISHENGZHICELVE。MUQIANKEXINGDEFANGFASHITONGGUORENWEIKONGZHIZIDAIFENGSHULIANG,GUANCEZIDAIFENGFAYUBIAOXIAN,CONGERTUICECIFENGDANDUJISHENGSHIDESHENGZHICELVE:RUGUOMUFENGJINGENJUJIZHUDAXIAOLAIJUEDINGCHANLUANLIANG,ZEZIDAIFENGZAIBUTONGTIXINGDAXIAODEJIZHUSHANGDOUJUYOULIANGHAODEFAYUBIAOXIAN,ZHEYICELVEWEIMOUXIEDANDUJISHENG、BUFUYUZIDAIDEJUJISHENGFENGCAIYONG[2];RUGUOMUFENGBUNENGJINGZHUNKONGZHICHANLUANLIANG,ERSHICAIYONGTONGGUOZIDAIFENGJINGZHENGLAIKONGZHIFENGQUNSHULIANGDESHENGZHICELVE,ZEZIDAIFENGFAYUBIAOXIANWANQUANYILAIYUJIZHUTIXINGDAXIAO(JIYINGYANGZIYUANDUOSHAO),ZHEYICELVEWEIDANDUFUYUZIDAIDELENGJIAOZHONGTUIFENG[Goniozus nephantidis(Muesebeck)]SUOCAIYONG[15]。ZAIKEHEZUOFUYUZIDAIDEYINGPIZHONGTUIFENGZHONG,GENJUFEIKONGZHIXING(BUKONGZHIWOFENGSHU)SHIYANGUANCHAJIEGUOTUICE,KENENGCAIQUHOUYISHENGZHICELVE[7,16,17],DANSHANGXUKONGZHIXINGSHIYANYUYIYANZHENG。

  WEITANJIUYINGPIZHONGTUIFENGCIFENGDESHENGZHICELVE,BENYANJIUYIGUANSHIZHONGTUIFENGJIQIJIZHUQINGYANGTIANNIU(Saperda populnca L.)WEIDUIXIANG,ZAIBUTONGTIZHILIANGDEJIZHUSHANG,TONGGUORENWEIJIANSHAOZIDAIYOUCHONGSHULIANGSHEZHIWOQUNDAXIAOCHULI,GUANCHAYUHUACHUFENGSHU、XINGBIHECIFENGTIXINGDAXIAO。

  1、材料與方法

  1.1、GONGSHIKUNCHONG

  GONGSHIJIZHUQINGYANGTIANNIU(Saperda populnca L.)YOUJIANGSUSHENGLINYEKEXUEYUANSENLINBAOHUYANJIUSUOTIGONG,JUNWEICONGYANGSHUZHIZHONGPOUCHUDEYUEDONGLAOSHUYOUCHONG。GONGSHIGUANSHIZHONGTUIFENG(Sclerodermus guani Xiao et Wu)LAIZIJIANGSUSHENGLINYEKEXUEYUANSENLINBAOHUYANJIUSUOLINYEYOUHAISHENGWUTIANDIFANYUSHI,JINNIANLAIYONGYUJIANGSUDENGSHENGBUFENLINQUFANGZHISONGMOTIANNIU。SHICHONGJUNZAI4℃HENGWENXIALENGZANGBAOCUNBEIYONG。

  1.2、SHIYANFANGFA

  CHENGLIANGQINGYANGTIANNIUYOUCHONG(Mittler XS105 Dual Range,JINGQUEDAO10×10-4g)HOU,DANTOUJIERUZHIXINGGUAN(ZHIJING1 cm、CHANGDU4 cm)ZHONG,ZAISHIFANG1TOUJIAOPEIGUODEGUANSHIZHONGTUIFENGCIFENG(YIXIAJIANCHENG“MUFENG”)。DANGSUOCHANLUANFUHUAHOU,TONGGUOYICHUCHUFUYOUCHONGSHEZHIYIXIAZIDAIFENGSHULIANGTIDU:10、20、30、40TOU,YIZIRANCHANLUAN、FUHUADEYOUCHONGSHULIANG(DAYUDENGYU50TOU)WEIDUIZHAO。MEITIANGUANCHAJILUYOUCHONGSHUZHIZHIQIHUAYONGJIEJIAN,JILUYOUCHONGFAYULIQI(CONGSHOUCIGUANCHADAOYOUCHONGDAODI1GEWANZHENGJIANCHUXIANDESHIJIAN);ZIDAIFENGYUHUAHOU,JISHUZONGCHUFENGLIANG,BINGJIANGSUOYOUZIDAIFENGCICHENGCHONGJITICHENGLIANGYIHUODEGETIPINGJUNTIZHILIANG,ZUOWEIZIDAIFENGTIXINGDAXIAODECEDU。SHIYANZAIYANGCHONGSHINEIJINXING,WENDU(26±1)℃。MEIGECHULIZHONGFU20CI。

  1.3、SHUJUFENXI

  YONGlogisticGUANGYIXIANXINGMOXING(ERXIANGFENBU,LIANJIEHANSHUlogit)FENXIBUTONGSHULIANGZIDAIFENGYOUCHONGCHULIXIAFAYUZHICHENGCHONGYUHUADECUNHUOGAILVHEXINGBI(XIONGCHONGZHANZIDAIFENGZONGSHUDEBILI)SUIJIZHUTIZHILIANGZENGDADEBIANHUAQUSHI,DANGSHUJUDEFANGCHADAYUMOXINGJIADINGDEFANGCHA(GUODULISAN)SHI,YONGNIERXIANGFENBU(quasi-binomial distribution)YUYIXIAOZHENG。CHULIYINSU(YOUCHONGSHULIANGHEJIZHUTIZHILIANG)DEYINGXIANGXIANZHUXINGYONGDUISHUSIRANBIKAFANGCEYANJINXINGJIANYAN。YONGYIBANXIANXINGHUIGUIFENXIZIDAIFENGTIZHILIANG,CHULIYINSUDEYINGXIANGXIANZHUXINGYONGFCEYANJINXINGJIANYAN。SHUJUFENXIYONGRRUANJIAN[18]。

  2、結果與分析

秒速赛车6码计划   2.1、ZIDAIFENGWOQUNDAXIAOHEJIZHUTIZHILIANGDUIZIDAIFENGCUNHUOLVDEYINGXIANG

  ZIDAIFENGWOQUNDAXIAOXIANZHUYINGXIANGZIDAIFENGCUNHUOLV(χ2=79.74,P<0.001),JIZHUTIZHILIANGDUIZIDAIFENGCUNHUOLVWUXIANZHUYINGXIANG(χ2=3.20,P=0.07),WOQUNDAXIAOYUJIZHUTIZHILIANGZHIJIANCUNZAIXIANZHUHUZUOYINGXIANG(χ2=9.78,P=0.04)。ZAIWOQUNWEI10、20、30HE40TOUCHULIZHONG,ZIDAIFENGCUNHUOLVJUNHENGAO,ERQIEJUNBUSHOUJIZHUTIZHILIANGDEYINGXIANG(10TOU:z=0.02,P=0.89;20TOU:z=1.54,P=0.22;30TOU:z=0.02,P=0.89;40TOU:z=0.25,P=0.62);ZAIZIRANWOQUN(DAYUDENGYU50TOU)XIA,ZIDAIFENGCUNHUOLVZONGTIDIYUYISHANGCHULI(z=11.159,P<0.001),JIZHUTIZHILIANGMEIZENGJIA1 mgZIDAIFENGCUNHUOLVZENGJIA4%(TU1)。

  2.2、ZIDAIFENGWOQUNDAXIAOHEJIZHUTIZHILIANGDUIZIDAIFENGXINGBIDEYINGXIANG

  ZIDAIFENGWOQUNDAXIAO(χ2=1.955,P=0.744)、JIZHUTIZHILIANG(χ2=0.418,P=0.518)JIQILIANGYINSUHUZUO(χ2=6.212,P=0.184)JUNDUIXINGBI(XIONGXINGZHANBI)WUXIANZHUYINGXIANG,XINGBIPINGJUNWEI5%(TU2)。

圖2 不同窩群大小的子代蜂性比與寄主體質量的關系
圖2 不同窩群大小的子代蜂性比與寄主體質量的關系

圖1 不同窩群大小處理下子代蜂存活率與寄主體質量的關系
圖1 不同窩群大小處理下子代蜂存活率與寄主體質量的關系

秒速赛车6码计划   2.3、ZIDAIFENGWOQUNDAXIAOHEJIZHUTIZHILIANGDUIZIDAICIFENGTIXINGDAXIAODEYINGXIANG

圖3 不同窩群大小處理下的子代雌蜂體質量與寄主體質量的關系
秒速赛车6码计划 圖3 不同窩群大小處理下的子代雌蜂體質量與寄主體質量的關系

  ZIDAIFENGWOQUNDAXIAO(F4,83=24.69,P<0.001)YUJIZHUTIZHILIANG(F1,83=11.69,P<0.001)JUNXIANZHUYINGXIANGZIDAICIFENGTIZHILIANG,LIANGYINSUJIANWUXIANZHUHUZUOYINGXIANG(F4,79=1.89,P=0.12)(TU3)。ZAIZIDAIWOQUNDAXIAOBUBIANDEQINGKUANGXIA,ZIDAICIFENGTIZHILIANGSUIJIZHUTIZHILIANGZENGJIAERZHIXIANZENGJIA,JIZHUTIZHILIANGMEIZENGJIA1 mg,ZIDAICIFENGTIZHILIANGZENGJIA0.005 mg(t=3.42,P<0.001);ZAIJIZHUTIZHILIANGBUBIANDEQINGKUANGXIA,ZIDAICIFENGTIZHILIANGSUIZIDAIWOQUNZENGDAERJIANGDI,YUWOQUNWEI10TOUDEZIDAICIFENGTIZHILIANGXIANGBI,WOQUNWEI20TOUDEWUXIANZHUCHAYI(P<0.01),QITAWOQUNDECIFENGTIZHILIANGFENBIEJIANXIAO0.202 mg(30TOU,t=5.33,P<0.001)、0.240 mg(40TOU,t=6.14,P<0.001)HE0.343 mg(DAYUDENGYU50TOU,t=8.67,P<0.001);YUWOQUNWEI20TOUDECHULIXIANGBI,QITAWOQUNDEZIDAICIFENGTIZHILIANGFENBIEJIANXIAO0.141 mg(30TOU,t=3.75,P=0.003)、0.179 mg(40TOU,t=4.57,P<0.001)HE0.282 mg(DAYUDENGYU50TOU,t=7.15,P<0.001);YUWOQUNWEI30TOUFENGCHULIXIANGBI,DAYUDENGYU50TOUWOQUNXIADEZIDAICIFENGTIZHILIANGJIANXIAO0.140 mg(t=3.42,P=0.01)。

  3、討論

  BENYANJIUFAXIAN,ZAIRENWEIJIANSHAOGUANSHIZHONGTUIFENGSUOCHANZIDAIYOUCHONGSHULIANG(XIAOYU50TOU)DECHULIZHONG,ZIDAIFENGFAYUZHICHENGCHONGYUHUADECUNHUOLVJUNHENGAO,ERQIEBUSHOUJIZHUTIZHILIANGDEYINGXIANG;DANZAIZIRANWOQUN(DAYUDENGYU50TOU)XIA,ZIDAIFENGCUNHUOLVZONGTIJIAODI,SUIJIZHUTIZHILIANGZENGDAERZENGDA。GENJUGAIJIEGUOTUICE,GUANSHIZHONGTUIFENGCIFENGKENENGCAIYONG“SHILIANGCHAOECHANLUAN”DUICE,“SHILIANG”SHIZHICHANLUANLIANGLVEDUOYUCUNHUOZHIYUHUACHUFENGDELIANG。LIRU,ZAIMEITOUSONGMOTIANNIU(Monochamus altematus Hops)YOUCHONGSHANGJIE2、3HUO4TOUGUANSHIZHONGTUIFENGQINGKUANGXIA,MEITOUMUFENGPINGJUNCHAN49、44HE24LILUAN,CUNHUOZHICHENGCHONGYUHUADEBILIFENBIEWEI63.3%、81.8%HE91.7%[19]。BENYANJIUFAXIAN,ZIDAICICHENGCHONGTIXINGDAXIAOSUIZIDAICHONGLIANGZENGDUOERXIANXINGJIANXIAO,ZHESHUOMINGZIDAIFENGDUIJIZHUZIYUANCUNZAIMINGXIANDEJINGZHENG。GAIFANBIGUANXIGUANGFANCUNZAIYUWUFUYUXIXINGDEJUJISHENGFENGZHONG[20],YECUNZAIYUZHONGTUIFENGDEJINYUANSHULENGJIAOZHONGTUIFENGZHONG[15]。

秒速赛车6码计划   CAIYONG“SHILIANGCHAOECHANLUAN”DEDUICE,YOUYIXIASHIYINGXING:1)MUFENGTONGGUODUOCHANZIDAIKETIGAOYUQITACIFENGDEXIANGDUIJINGZHENGLI。CIFENGTONGGUOHEZUOKEYOUXIAOLIYONGTIXINGJIAODADEJIZHU[13],DANZAIZHIFUJIZHUHOU,ZIDAIFENGMIANLINZHUJINGZHENG,GUSHIDANGDUOCHANLUANKETIGAOYUQITAMUFENGDEZIDAIJINXINGJINGZHENGDEYOUSHI。2)JISHICIFENGDANDUJISHENGJIZHU,CAIYONGGAISHENGZHICELVEKETONGGUOZIDAIDEJINGZHENGDADAOZEYOULIETAIDEXIAOGUO。3)ZAIYIGEJIZHUZIYUANLIANGBUQUEDINGXINGHENDADEHUANJINGZHONG,YIDANZHAODAOJIZHUSHIDANGDUOCHANLUANKENENGJIANGDILAIZIBUQUEDINGXINGDEFENGXIAN。ZHONGTUIFENGBAOLUANLIANGYUANCHAOGUOQICHANLUANLIANG,DANYOUYUFUYUZIDAI、XUNZHAOJIZHUXUHAOFEIDALIANGSHIJIAN,KENENGNANYISHIXIANQISHENGZHIQIANLI[12],ZAIZHEZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,SHIDANGDUOCHANLUANBILANGFEILUANGENGYOULI。DANGRAN,MUFENGFUYUKETIGAOZIDAIDEZONGTIFAYUBIAOXIAN[10,11],YOUQISHIDANGJIZHUZHILIANGYANZHONGEHUADEQINGKUANGXIA,MUFENGKEQUSHIZIDAILUANYIBIMIANGUODUXIAOHAOJIZHU[21]。

秒速赛车6码计划   BENYANJIUFAXIAN,ZIDAIYOUCHONGLIANGHEJIZHUTIXINGDAXIAOJUNBUYINGXIANGZIDAICHUFENGXINGBI。ZHONGTUIFENGZIDAIFENGXINGBITONGCHANGBIJIAOWENDING[7,10,14,20]。CAIYONGJIDUANPIANCIDEXINGBIFENPEICELVE,KENENGYOUZHUYUZENGQIANGZIDAICIFENGSOUXUNHELIYONGJIZHU[13],FUHEZIYUANQIANGHUAJIASHUODEYUCE[22]。

秒速赛车6码计划   ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,GUANSHIZHONGTUIFENGCIFENGKENENGCAIYONG“CHANGUDINGXINGBIQIELVEDADEWOQUN”DESHENGZHICELVE。GAICHUBUJIELUNYOUDAIYUCAIYONGNENGJINGQUEJIANBIEZHONGTUIFENGQINZIGUANXIDEFENZISHENGWUXUEJISHUYUYIJINYIBUYANZHENG。

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