秒速赛车6码计划

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19世紀美國霍亂時期人們對霍亂的認識演變

添加時間:2019/10/15

  摘要:19世紀美國爆發了三次霍亂大流行,其公認的流行年份是1832年、1849年和1866年。在此期間,隨著對霍亂認識的不斷深入,人們對待霍亂的態度也有了質的變化。起初霍亂流行時,宗教道德主義占主流,它教化人們注重個人衛生,倡導節制自律的生活,而到1866年人們已經認識到霍亂具有飲水傳染性,進而采取了更為科學的應對方法。19世紀美國霍亂流行使人們積累了一定的疫病防治經驗,公眾的衛生健康意識逐漸得到提高,為公共衛生運動的開展奠定了基礎。

  關鍵詞:秒速赛车6码计划19世紀; 美國; 霍亂流行; 防治理念;

秒速赛车6码计划   HUOLUANBEICHENGWEI“19SHIJIDESHIJIEBING”,ZAI19SHIJILICENGCHUXIANGUOWUCISHIJIEXINGDALIUXING[1]。1817NIAN,HUOLUANCONGMENGJIALATONGGUODONGNANYACHUANBODAOZHONGGUO,CONGBOSICHUANBODAOXIBUDEAIJI,ZHIHOUJINYIBUCHUANBODAOELUOSI,1831NIANJIXUXIANGXICHUANGUOOUZHOUDALUJINRUYINGGUO。RANHOU,YU1832NIANYUEGUODAXIYANGXIJUANBEIMEIZHOU[2]。ZHEYISHIQI,WEILEJIANGHUOLUANHEQITAYUANYINYINQIDEFUXIEQUBIEKAILAI,RENMENDOUZAISHIYONGYAZHOUHUOLUAN(Asiatic cholera)YICI,LAIMIAOSHUGAIBING[3]。19SHIJIMEIGUOHUOLUANLIUXINGQIJIAN,RENMENDUIDAIHUOLUANDETAIDUFASHENGLESHENKEDEBIANHUA,BENWENZHUYAOWEIRAO19SHIJIMEIGUOHUOLUANSANCIDALIUXINGDESHIDAIBEIJING、LIUXINGQINGKUANGLAITANTAOMEIYICIHUOLUANLIUXINGSHIRENMENDUIDAIHUOLUANDETAIDU,JINERWAJUEYINZANGZAIHUOLUANBEIHOUDESHENCENGWENTI,FENXIDANGSHIRENMENDUIHUOLUANDEFANGZHILINIANJIQIZHUANBIAN,XIWANGWEIWOGUOFANGZHIYIBINGHEGONGGONGWEISHENGJIANSHETIGONGXIEXUQISHI。

19世紀美國霍亂時期人們對霍亂的認識演變

  1、19世紀美國霍亂

  19SHIJIMEIGUOBAOFALESANCIHUOLUANDALIUXING,QIGONGRENDELIUXINGNIANFENSHI1832NIAN、1849NIANHE1866NIAN[4]。ZHIHOU,HUOLUANRENGSHIYOUFASHENG,DANXIANGDUIBIJIAOFENSAN,JIASHANGYUFANGHEWEISHENGFANGZHICUOSHIDEZHUBUWANSHAN,BINGMEIYOUCHUXIANDADELIUXING。19SHIJIDEHUOLUANLIUXINGSHIRENMENJILEILEYIDINGDEYIBINGFANGZHIJINGYAN,GONGZHONGDEWEISHENGJIANKANGYISHIDEYITIGAO,WEIZHIHOUGONGGONGWEISHENGYUNDONGDEKAIZHANDIANDINGLEJICHU。

  1.1、DIYICIHUOLUANLIUXING

  1832NIAN,DANGHUOLUANZAIMEIGUODIYICIBAOFASHI,QIANLIANGGESHIJIDEZHONGDACHUANRANBING——HUANGREBINGHETIANHUAYIBUZAISHIWEIXIEMEIGUORENMINJIANKANGDEZHENZHENGWENTI[5]1。1832NIAN,HUOLUANYOUMENGTELIERHEKUIBEIKEJINRULEBEIMEI,ZHIHOUXUNSUMANYANDAOSHENGLAOLUNSIHE,JIERYANSHENDAOMEIGUODESHANGPULANHU。SUIZHUYIQINGJINRUAOERBANI,HUOLUANYIJINGCONGBEIBUHENIUYUEYILUNANXIA,ZAIANDALVEHU、YILIHU、BUFALUOHEPIZIBAOZHIJIANCHUANXING,DITELV、ZHIJIAGEHELUOKEDAOYECHUXIANLEHUOLUANDELIUXING。6YUEXIAXUN,HUOLUANZHUANYIDAOLEHADEXUNHEGU,YANZHUYILIYUNHEDAODANIUYUEZHOUXIBU,ZHIHOUHUOLUANYANZHUEHAIEYUNHEMANYANDAOEHAIEHEHEMIXIXIBIHE,ZUIZHONGZAI11YUEXIJIBATUNLURIHEXINAOERLIANG。ZHECIHUOLUANLIUXINGXIANRANSHICONGNIUYUEKAISHICHUANBO,JINGXINZEXIDAOFEICHENG、BAERDEMO、FUJINIYA,ZUIZHONGMANYANDAOCHAERSIDUN,TONGSHIXIANGBEICHUANBODAOBOSHIDUNHEXINYINGGELAN[4]。

秒速赛车6码计划   ZAINIUYUE,YIQINGDAYUECHIXULE6ZHOU,6YUEXIAXUNDADAOGAOFENG,YU8YUECHUJIESHU。ERBINXIFANIYAZHOUDEPIZIBAO、WEIERHECHAERSIDUNQUEMEIYOUCHUXIANHUOLUANDEDALIUXING,ZHESHIRENMENDUIHUOLUANDECHUANBOGUILVKUNHUOBUYI[6]。XINAOERLIANGZUOWEI1832NIANZUIHOUYIGESHOUDAOHUOLUANYINGXIANGDECHENGSHI,ZAOYULEYANZHONGDESHANGWANG。10YUEXIAXUN,HUOLUANZAIXINAOERLIANGBAOFA,BINGYIJINGRENDESUDUZAIYANHAIMANYAN,11YUE5RI,《XINAOERLIANGSHANGBAO》BAODAO:“RENMENCHUZAIYIZHONGQIANSUOWEIYOUDETONGKU、JUSANGHEXINGFENZHIZHONG。ZIHUOLUANKAISHICHUANBOYILAI,ZHISHAOYOU1 800RENSANGSHENG”。WEILEZHENGSHI《XINAOERLIANGSHANGBAO》SUOYAN,4TIANHOU《XINSHIBAO》XUANCHENG:“ZIHUOLUANBAOFAYILAI,RENMENYIZAOSHOULEKEPADESHANGWANG,ZAIHUOLUANLIUXINGDE14TIANLIZHISHAOYOU2 000RENSIWANG。”XINGYUNDESHI,YIQINGZHICHIXULESANGEDUOXINGQI,GUJIDESIWANGRENSHUZAI4 350REN~5 000REN。ZAIRUCIDUANDESHIJIANNEI,JUDADERENKOUSIWANGZAOCHENGLEMAIZANGSIZHEDEKUNNAN。ZHEQIJIANJIHUSUOYOUDEJINGJIHUODONGDOUTINGZHIBUQIAN,MAIZANGSIZHEHEZHAOGUBINGRENCHENGWEIXINAOERLIANGDEZHUYAORENWU。ZONGDELAIJIANG,ZHECIHUOLUANCONGNIUYUEBEIBUKAISHI,BINGMANYANDAOZHENGGEMEIZHOUDALUDEDONGBU,ZAIZHUYAOCHENGSHIZHONG,ZHIYOUBOSHIDUNHECHAERSIDUNTAOTUOLEHUOLUANDEXIJI。ZAINANFANG,HUOLUANTONGYANGDUIHEIRENNULIZAOCHENGLEHUIMIEXINGDAJI。ZAIHELIUYANANHEZHUDUOGANGKOUDOULIUXIALEBUKEMOMIEDEYINJI[6]。

秒速赛车6码计划   1.2、DIERCIHUOLUANLIUXING

  1842NIAN~1862NIAN,HUOLUANZAIYICIXIJUANLESHIJIE,ZHECIHUOLUANQIYUANYUNANYA,TONGGUOCHAOSHENG、SHANGCHUAN、JUNJIANDENGHUODONGJINXINGCHUANBO。1848NIAN12YUE2RI,NIUYUEZAODAOHUOLUANXIJI,12YUE11RIXINAOERLIANGSHOUDAOYINGXIANG,ZHIHOUHUOLUANXUNSUMANYANDAOMIXIXIBIHEHEEHAIEHE。1849NIAN1YUE,HUOLUANDAODAXINXINNEITI,CONGNEILICHUANGUOEHAIEZHOU,YANZHUYILINUOYIHEDAODAZHIJIAGE,JIEZHUJIXUXIANGDONGCHUANBO,ZHEYISHIQIHUOLUANZHUYAOSHITONGGUOWUDAHUQUDALIANGDEQICHUANCHUANBODE,BINGYU8YUEFENDAODALEDITELV。LINGWAI,HUOLUANYEGENSUIZHUXIBUTUOHUANGZHEDEJIAOBU,ZAI1850NIAN10YUECHUANRUSAKELAMENTUO,BINGXUNSUMANYANZHIJIUJINSHAN,ERCISHIMEIGUODONGBUYEZAOSHOULEHUOLUANDESINVE[4]。

  1848NIAN12YUE,HUOLUANZAINIUYUECHUXIAN,ZHIHOUZHISHIOUERYOUYIXIEYISIHUOLUANDEBINGLI,DANYIQINGZAI1849NIAN6YUEKAISHIHUISHENG, BINGYU7YUEDADAOGAOFENG,1849NIAN10YUE1RI,ZHECIHUOLUANLIUXINGXUANGAOJIESHU,GUANFANGGONGBUDESIWANGRENSHUWEI5 071REN,ERZHENZHENGDESHUZIKENENGYUANBUZHICI[6]。ZHIHOUDE5NIAN,HUOLUANZAINIUYUEJIHUMEINIANXIATIANDOUYOUQINGWEIDEBAOFA。1854NIANXIATIAN,HUOLUANZAICILIUXING,DAO8YUEDAYUEYOU1 178RENSIWANG,ZHECIXIJIBIAOZHIZHUDIERCIHUOLUANLANGCHAODEJIESHU,ZHIHOUHUOLUANZAINIUYUEZEJIHUXIAOSHILE12NIAN[7]。1848NIAN12YUE18RI,HUOLUANCHUXIANZAIXINAOERLIANG,QIGANRANYUANKENENGLAIZIYISOUYIMINCHUAN。YUNIUYUEBUTONGDESHI,YICHANGBAOZHAXINGDELIUXINGXUNSUMANYANDAOZHENGGEXINAOERLIANG,1849NIAN,XINAOERLIANGYUEYOU3 176RENSIWANG,ZHIHOUCHIXUDAO1855NIAN,HUOLUANMEINIANDESIWANGRENSHUZAI450REN~1 448REN。LINGWAI,HUOLUANYEYIZHIZAILUYISIANNEIZHOUDEHELIUHEHAIWANSAODANG,ZAOCHENGLEZHONGDARENYUANSHANGWANG[6]。

秒速赛车6码计划   1850NIAN3YUEHUOLUANDAODAPIZIBAO,YIZALUANWUZHANGDEFANGSHIZAICHENGSHIJIZHOUBIANDIQUCHUANBO,9YUEYIQINGJIANJIANPINGXI。ZHIDAO1854NIAN,HUOLUANCAILIUXINGQILAI,ZAOCHENGLEYUE1 000RENSIWANG,ZHESHIDUIPIZIBAODEZUIHOUYICIZHONGDAXIJI,ERXINPIZIBAOHEBINXIFANIYAZHOUXIBUQUECHENGGONGDIDUOGUOLEZHECIHUOLUANDEXIJI[6]。ZONGZHI,ZHECIHUOLUANZAI1849NIANJIHUCHUANBIANLEZHENGGEMEIGUO,SHENGLUYISI、XINXINNEITI、SANGDASIJI、SHENGANDONGNIAODENGXIBUCHENGSHIYOUYURENKOUDEDALIANGQIANRU,SHIDEHUOLUANDAWEILIUXING,YUE10%SHENZHIGENGDUODERENSIYUZHECHANGHUOLUAN。1849NIANYIHOU,YIQINGCHIXULE6NIANDUO,ZUIZHONGZAI1854NIAN~1855NIANDEYIPINGXI。

秒速赛车6码计划   1.3、DISANCIHUOLUANLIUXING

  1866NIAN5YUE2RI,HUOLUANDISANCIQINXINIUYUE,ZHIHOUJINRUDITELV、XINXINNEITIHEZHIJIAGE,BINGYOUZHIJIAGECHUANBODAOLESHENGLUYISIHEMEIGUOXIBU,DEKESASIZHOUDEXUDUOCHENGSHISHIDIYICIZAOSHOUHUOLUANDEXIJI,TAMENDADUOSHIYUANSHIDEBIANJINGCHENGSHI,WEISHENGTIAOJIANELIE,HUANYONGYOUDAGUIMODEJUNDUI,ZHEWEIHUOLUANDEDAGUIMOLIUXINGCHUANGZAOLETIAOJIAN,TONGSHIHUOLUANYECONGXINAOERLIANGHEMOXIGEWANYANANDIQUDAODAJIAERWEISIDUNHEBULANGSIWEIER,ZHESHIDEKESASIDEBEIBUHENANBUDOUZAOYULEHUOLUAN,XINGSHIYANJUN[4]。

  1866NIANDEHUOLUANLIUXINGXIANGDUIWENHEQIESHIJIANJIAODUAN,DANYEYOUSHAOSHULIWAI。1866NIAN8YUE,XINAOERLIANGCHUXIANDIYIPIHUOLUANBINGLI,ZHIHOUXUNSUMANYANZHIZHENGGECHENGSHI,ZAOCHENGLEYUE1 294RENSIWANG。CINIAN,GAIJIBINGYOUJUANTUZHONGLAI,DUOQULE681MINGSHOUHAIZHEDESHENGMING,ZAI1868NIANHUOLUANLIUXINGDEZUIHOUYINIANLI,JINYOU129RENSIWANG。ZHEYISHIQIDESIWANGSHUZISHIZHIDEHUAIYIDE,YINWEIYOUXUDUOSIWANGMEIYOUJILU,SHENZHILIANZUIHAODEYISHENGYEWUFAQUEDINGBINGRENDEQUEQIESIYIN。1873NIAN~1875NIAN,HUOLUANZAIMEIGUOYOUCHUXIANLEXIAOFANWEIDELIUXING,GUANYUHUOLUANDABAOFADECHUANWENYINQILEHENDADEGONGZHONGSAODONG,DANSHIJIBINGLIHENSHAO,ERQIEFENSAN。YAZHOUHUOLUANDELIUXINGCHIXUBUDUAN,XINWENSHELUNHEZHUANTIBAODAODEDASIXUANYANG,WEIGONGZHONGQIAOXIANGLEJINGZHONG,TONGSHIYEWEIWEISHENGGAIGEJIANAHANZHUWEI,TUIDONGLE19SHIJIZHONGQIMEIGUOGONGGONGWEISHENGGAIGEYUNDONGDEXINGQI[6]。

  2、霍亂流行期間人們認識的轉變

秒速赛车6码计划   1832NIAN,DADUOSHUMEIGUORENRENWEIMEIGUOSHIYIGEJIANKANG、CHONGMANSHENGJI、XINXINXIANGRONGDEGUOJIA,DAXIYANGZUOWEIYIDAOTIANRANDEPINGZHANG,SHIDEBEIMEIZHEPIANTUDIMIANSHOULEHENDUOJIBINGDEQINXI,DANZHECITAQUEMEIYOUZUDANGZHUHUOLUANDEJIAOBU。1832NIAN,HUOLUANDIDAMEIGUOHOU,XUNSUMANYAN。TABUJINCHUANBOSUDUKUAI,HUANNENGXUNSUZHIRENSIWANG,LISHIYOUJIUDEGELIJIANYICUOSHIJIHUBUQIRENHEZUOYONG,CISHIRENMENDUIHUOLUANJIHUYIWUSUOZHI,ZHENGFU、YISHENGDOUBUDEBUQIUZHUYUCHUANTONGDEYUFANGFANGSHI,RUFANGXUEHEQINGXIEDENG。RENMENPUBIANXIANGXINHUOLUANSHIYOUSHITIHUOFULANDEWUZHISUOSHIFANGCHUDEZHANGQIYINQIDE,ZAIHUOLUANXILAIDESHIHOU,RENMENSUONENGZUODEJINJINSHIYONGHUOFENSHAOGANRANZHEDEYIWU,SHITUTONGGUOYANXUNJINGHUAKONGQI,LAIFANGZHIWENYIDEMANYAN[8]135。DANGSHIHENDUORENRENWEIHUOLUANSHILAIZISHANGDIDECHENGFA,CHENGFARENMENDEBUJIE、DUOLUOHEFANGZONG。WEILEZHIYUJIBING,HUIFUJIANKANG,RENMENBIXUZAISHENTIHELINGHUNSHANGFUCONGSHANGDIDEYIZHI,ZHUIQIUGANJING、ZHENGJIE、YOUJIEZHIHEDAODEDESHENGHUO。QIONGRENZUOWEIHUOLUANDEZUIDASHOUHAIZHE,GENGJIAYINZHENGLEANGZANG、BUDAODE、YINLUANHEXUJIUDENGEXISHIDAOZHIHUOLUANDASICHUANBODEZUIKUIHUOSHOU。

  DAO1849NIAN,RENMENRENGJIURENWEIHUOLUANSHIYIZHONGBUJIE、ZONGYUHEDUOLUODEJIBING,SHISHANGDIYIZHIDETIXIAN,SHIDUIYIGEXIANRUWUZHIZHUYIHEZUIEDEGUOJIADECHENGFA,YINWEIMEIGUORENDUIWUZHIDEGUOFENZHUIQIUHETANLAN,SHIGUOJIADEZUIEYUELAIYUESHENZHONG[5]121-125。HUOLUANBUJINSHISHANGDIDUIGUOJIAHEGERENZUIEDECHENGFA,TONGSHIYESHIWEILEWEIHUSHEHUIZHENGYI,SAOCHUSHEHUICANZHA。HUOLUANBINGYINRENGSHIBUJIEZHIMI,YISHENGMENSHUSHOUWUCE,RENMENZHUANERJIANGMAOTOUDUIZHUNKEXUE,RENWEIHUOLUANSHIDUIKEXUEZIMINGBUFANDECHENGFA,YINWEIKEXUESHIYUELAIYUEDUODERENBEILIZONGJIAO,ZHESHIRENMENZHUYAOTONGGUOQIDAO、JINSHIHEZHAIJIELAIQIQIUSHANGDIDEBAOHU。DUIDADUOSHUMEIGUORENLAISHUO,PINQIONGRENGRANSHIYIZHONGDAODEXIANXIANG, ZISHENGPINKUNDEEXI、ANGZANGHEWUZHIYEZISHENGLEHUOLUAN,DANYIGERENDEDAODEZHUANGKUANGSIHUBUZAIZUYIJIESHITADEMIANYILIHUOYIGANXING,JIBINGYUELAIYUECHENGWEIHUANJINGDECHANWU。ZAIYINGGUO,YIXUEJIEZHUXINDETONGJIGONGJUYIJINGWUKEBIANBODIZHENGMING,CHENGSHIDEWUGOU、YONGJIHEZAOGAODEKONGQISUODUANLERENMENDESHOUMING,AIDEWEN·CHADEWEIKE(Edwin Chadwick)、WEILIAN·FAER(William Farr)HEYUEHAN·XIMENG(John Simon)DENGYISHENGHESHEHUIGAIGEJIASHIYINGGUORENKAISHIYISHIDAOPAISHUIBUCHANG, WUSHUIHEYONGJIDEGONGYUDEWEIXIAN。1849NIAN, TAMENDEGONGZUOHEJIELUNSHIXUDUOYISHENGXIANGXINCHUANTONGDEBUJIUFANGFASHITULAODE,HUOLUANSHIWUFAZHIYUDE,TABIXUTONGGUOQINGJIEHEWEISHENGLAIYUFANG。ZHEXIEGUANNIANDEDAOLEMEIGUORENDERENTONG,TAMENKAISHIQINGJIEJIEDAO,JINGHUASHUIYUAN,XIUJIANPAISHUISHESHI,FANSISHEHUIBUGONGZHENG[5]143。ZAOQIGONGGONGWEISHENGGAIGEJIAYEKAISHICHANGDAOWEISHENGGAIGE,DANXUYAORENSHIDAOZHEYISHIQIDADUOSHUMEIGUORENRENGWUFAPAOQIGUYOUDEXINNIAN,JIDAODELUNSANGSHIYINFAJIBINGDEZHUYAOYUANYIN。

  1866NIANHUOLUANLIUXINGSHI,MEIGUOYISHENGYIJINGPUBIANRENTONGYINGGUOYISHENGYUEHAN·SINUO(John Snow)DEGUANDIAN,JIHUOLUANSHITONGGUOYINSHUICHUANRANDE,YUANYINZAIYUHUOLUANBINGRENDEPAIXIEWUHEOUTUWUHANYOUSHIRENZHIBINGDEDUSUHUOWEISHENGWU,TAKEYIWURANSHUIYUAN,BINGJINXINGCHUANBO,DANHENDUOYISHENGNANYIWANQUANLIJIEZHEYILILUN,TAMENGENGGANXINGQUDESHIYISHENGHEWEISHENGWEIYUANHUIKEYICAIYONGDEZHUFEIYINYONGSHUI,DUIYIWUHECHUANGSHANGYONGPINJINXINGXIAODUDENGSHIYONGJIANYI。SUIHOUNIUYUEDADOUSHIWEISHENGJUDESHIJIANZHENGMINGLEHUOLUANSHIKEYITONGGUOXIAODUHEJIANYILAIYUFANGDE,SHISINUOHECHADEWEIKEERBUSHISHANGDIBARENMENCONGHUOLUANZHONGJIEJIUCHULAI,ZHESHISHANGDIDECUNZAIYIBUZAISHIMEIGUORENSHENGHUOZHONGYIGEHEXINHEYOUYIYIDEXIANSHI。SUIZHURENMENDUIHUOLUANBINGYINRENSHIDEJIASHEN,SHANGDIZAIYINFAHUOLUANFANGMIANDEZUOYONGBIANDEYUELAIYUEXIAO,YIXUELINGYUKAISHIFASHENGJUDABIANGE,KEXUEZHONGXINDEDAORENMENDEXINLAI,GONGGONGWEISHENGGAIGESUIZHIXINGQI。

  3、19世紀美國霍亂流行的啟示

秒速赛车6码计划   1832NIAN,DANGHUOLUANSHOUCICHUXIANZAIBEIMEIDALUSHI,RENMENDUITAYIWUSUOZHI,ZHESHIRENMENSHIZHANSHENGBULEHUOLUANDE,YINWEISINUOHUANMEIYOUGOUJIANQIHUOLUANDEBINGYINLILUN,TONGJIYEHUANMEIYOUBANGTAZHENGSHIZIJIDECAIXIANG,GONGGONGWEISHENGZUZHIDANGRANJIUBUKENENGJIANGZHEZHONGZHISHITOURUSHIJIAN。RANER,DAO1866NIAN,MEIGUODEYISHENGDUIYUEHAN·SINUOHEFENG·PEITENGKEFUDENGRENYIJINGFEICHANGLEJIE,BINGKAISHIRENTONGTAMENGUANYUHUOLUANCHUANRANDEGUANDIAN,MEIGUODEYIXUESIXIANGTONG34NIANQIANXIANGBI,YIYOULEHENDADEJINBU,DUIYUXINSIXIANGYEYINENGXINRANJIESHOU。1866NIANXIATIAN,DADOUSHIWEISHENGJUYINGYUNERSHENG,TASHIMEIGUOWEIYINGDUIXINGONGYESHEHUIDETIAOZHANERZUOCHUDECHENGGONGFANYING,MEIGUORENZHUJIANYISHIDAOMEIGUOHEQITAGUOJIAYIYANG——YEXUBIDADUOSHUGUOJIAHAO,DANBENZHISHANGQUEMEIYOUSHENMEBUTONG,JIUSHIJIEDEWENTIZAIXINSHIJIEYIRANHUICHANSHENG。1832NIAN~1866NIAN,MEIGUOCONGXIANGCUNFAZHANWEICHENGSHI,YOUCONGCHENGSHIFAZHANCHENGDADOUSHI。DUIXUDUOMEIGUORENLAISHUO,1866NIANDEHUOLUANYICHENGLEYIGESHEHUIWENTI,TASHIRENLEIYUHUANJINGXIANGHUZUOYONGDEJIEGUO。ZHEBUSHIYIGETURANDEBIANHUA,ERQIEMEIGUORENZAILILUNSHANGBINGMEIYOUDONGYAODUIJINGSHENSHIJIEDEJIANSHOU,ZHISHIZAI1832NIAN~1866NIANQIJIAN, RENMENGUANZHUDEZHONGDIANFASHENGLEZHUANYI,RENLEISHENGHUOHEQINGGANZHONGBEIJINGSHENSUOZHANJUDEBUFENMANMANJIANSHAOLE,YINWEIMEIGUODACHENGSHIDESHENGHUOHUANJINGSHIZAITAIZAOGAOLE,LINGRENZHENJING。DAO1866NIAN,RENMENQINGXIDIRENSHIDAORUGUOLINGHUNSUOZAIDESHENTIYOUBING,LINGHUNJIUWUFABIANDEJIANKANG。GANJINGDEYINYONGSHUI、WANSHANDEPAISHUISHESHI、KUANCHANGTONGFENGDEZHUFANGNENGGOUSHIHUOLUANDEYIKONGZHI,DUIWUZHISHOUDUANDEGUANZHUBUKEBIMIANDIYIWEIZHUJINGSHENMUDEXIANSHIXINGDEXIAJIANG,DANDAODEZHUYIZUOWEIMEIGUOSUIPIANWENHUADEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,ZAIJIESHIHUOLUANDEFABINGYUANYINZHONGRENGZHANJUZHUYIDINGDEDIWEI。RENMENBUKENENGYIXIAZIJIUPAOQICHUANTONGDEJIAZHIGUAN,CHUANTONGDAODEZHUYIRENGZAIQIANZEMEIGUODEWUZHIZHUYI,DANZHESHIXINDEJIAZHIGUAN(KEXUE、XIAOLV、SHENGCHANLI)HESIWEIXIGUANYIZAIMEIGUORENDETOUNAOZHONGZHANJULEXINDEZHONGYAODIWEI,TAMENKEYIBANGZHUJIEJUESHEHUIBUGONGXIANXIANG,HUANJIEJIEJIMAODUN,SHIXIANBIYAODESHEHUIBIANGE[5]226-234。

秒速赛车6码计划   LISHIXIANGWOMENTISHI,TONGXIANGYIZHONGJIANSHIDEYANJIUGONGSHIDELUCHENGSHIJIQIJIANNANDE[9]。ZAI19SHIJICHU,RENMENDUIHUOLUANDEBINGYIN、ZHILIAOFANGFA、YUFANGCUOSHIJIHUYIWUSUOZHI,“ZHANGQIZHIBINGLUN”ZHANJUZHUZHUDAODIWEI,ZHEYILILUNRENWEIHUOLUANYUDANGDIDEZHANGQI(WUZHUODEHUOBUGANJINGDEKONGQI)YOUGUAN,ERHUOLUANLIUXINGDEZUIZHUYAOYUANYINSHIFULANWUFASHENGHUAXUEFANYINGSHIHUNRUDUQI,FENSANDAOKONGQIZHONGXINGCHENGZHANGQI,ZHUJIANXIANGZHOUWEIKUOSANERZHIBING[10]。DANGSHISHIZHENGGUANYUANSUOCAIQUDEGELIJIANYIDENGCUOSHI,BINGBUNENGZUZHIHUOLUANDECHUANBO,ZHIDAO1884NIAN1YUE7RI,DEGUOXIJUNXUEJIAKEHE(R.Koch,1843NIAN~1910NIAN)ZHAODAOLEHUOLUANDEBINGYUANTI——HUOLUANHUJUN,HUOLUANCAIZHUJIANDEDAOKONGZHI[8]132-135。ZHIHOURENMENYOUJINGLILEHENCHANGSHIJIANCAIJIESHOUKEHEDELILUN,SHIHUOLUANDEFANGZHICHENGWEILEKENENG。CONGHUOLUANCHUXIANDAOKEYIYUFANGHEZHILIAODEGUOCHENGSHIMANCHANGERJIANNANDE,RENMENDERENSHIYESHIZHUBUSHENHUAJIANQUTONGYIDE,ZAIZHETIAOLUSHANGXINGJINSUOYUDEKUNNANDOUSHIYOULIYOUDE,QIZUIZHONGMUBIAODOUSHIWEILEZUZHIHUOLUANDECHUANBO,ERMEIYICIKUNANDOUWEIXIAYICIQIANJINDIANDINGLEJICHU。

  LISHIYANJIUYINGCONGYANJIUZHEDESHIDAIHESHEHUIDEXIANSHIZHUANGKUANGCHUFA,BINGJIAYIFOUDING[11]。1832NIAN~1866NIAN,RENMENDUIDAIHUOLUANDETAIDUYOULEZHIDEBIANHUA,ZONGJIAOTONGKEXUEDEMAODUNTUIDONGZHUSHEHUIDEFAZHAN。1832NIANHUOLUANLAIXISHI,ZONGJIAODAODEZHUYIZHANZHULIU,TAJIAOHUARENMENZHUZHONGGERENWEISHENG,CHANGDAOJIEZHIZILVDESHENGHUO,ZHETONGDANGSHIDELISHISHEHUIHUANJINGSHIYIZHIDE,ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGZUZHILEYIBINGDECHUANBO。SUIZHUYIXUEDEJINBU,SHEHUIDEFAZHAN,1866NIANRENMENYIJINGRENSHIDAOHUOLUANJUYOUYINSHUICHUANRANXING,JINERCAIQULEGENGWEIKEXUEDEYINGDUIFANGFA。YANJIULISHI,BUJINYAOZUNZHONGSHISHI,HUANYAOBIANZHENGKANDAI。19SHIJIHUOLUANLIUXINGSHI,“ZHANGQIZHIBINGLUN”MEIYOUFAHUIZHENZHENGDEZUOYONG,DANZAI19SHIJIZHIQIAN,TAZAIZUZHISHUYI、NVEJIDENGLIUXINGXINGCHUANRANBINGFANGMIANQIDAOLEBUKEMOMIEDEZUOYONG。TONGGUOYIBINGFANGZHILINIANDEZHUANBIAN,KEYIRENSHIDAO:SHIWUDEFAZHANSHIQIANJINXINGYUQUZHEXINGDETONGYI,BIRANHUIJINGLIFOUDINGZHIFOUDINGDEGUOCHENG,YICIBUDUANXIANGQIANFAZHAN,TONGSHIZHEYIGUOCHENGYELIBUKAIKEXUEJIAMENDEBUXIETANSUOHECHUANGXIN。

秒速赛车6码计划   ZONGZHI,RENLEIYUHUOLUANDEDOUZHENGJIHUGUANCHUANLE19SHIJI,RENMENCONGDUIHUOLUANDEYIWUSUOZHIDAOZHAODAOHUOLUANDEBINGYIN,JIERZUZHIHUOLUANDECHUANBO,ZHEGEGUOCHENGSHIJIANNANERMANCHANGDE。HUOLUANZUOWEI19SHIJIZUIDADELIUXINGBING,TUIDONGLEGEGUODEWEISHENGGAIGEYUNDONG,ZHENGRU《TAIWUSHIBAO》SHANGSUOSHUO:“HUOLUANSHISUOYOUWEISHENGGAIGEJIAZHONGZUIYOUXIUDE,TABUFANGGUORENHECUOWU,YEBUYUANLIANGRENHEGUOSHI”。XIANZAI,WOMENYIRANMIANLINZHULIUXINGXINGCHUANRANBINGDEWEIXIE,JIBINGBINGYUANTIDEBIANYIWEIRENMENFANGKONGYIBINGDAILAILEGENGDADETIAOZHAN。TONG19SHIJIXIANGBI,SUIRAN21SHIJIDEYILIAOJISHUWUYISHIGENGWEIFADA,DAN21SHIJIZHICHUSARS、QINLIUGANDENGLIUXINGXINGCHUANRANBINGDEBAOFA,RENGHUIRANGRENJINGHUANGSHICUO、XINYOUYUJI。YANJIULISHISHIWEILEGENGHAODIZOUXIANGWEILAI,YANJIU19SHIJIHUOLUANDELIUXING,SHIWEILEXIQUJINGYANJIAOXUN,WEIWOGUODANGQIANDEYIBINGFANGZHIGONGZUOTIGONGQISHI,ZHESHITAGEIRENLEILIUXIADEBAOGUICAIFU。

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