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歷史論文范文欄目為您提供《20世紀英國煤礦工人塵肺病蔓延、誤讀及防治》范文一篇,希望對您在論文寫作的時候有所幫助
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20世紀英國煤礦工人塵肺病蔓延、誤讀及防治

添加時間:2019/10/09

  摘要:煤工塵肺是20世紀英國職業健康歷史上較為嚴重的疾病之一。英國對煤工塵肺的認知經歷過偏差與曲折的復雜過程, 醫學界的持續調研和認識深化, 確認了過量吸入煤礦粉塵是致病原因。依循發病機理和社會的不斷追問, 英國逐漸找尋到該職業病的解決之道, 確立起較為完善的監管體系和實施機制。在煤工塵肺的預防與治理過程中, 礦工工會和國家煤炭局發揮了重要作用, 兩者在粉塵防治、醫學預防和塵肺病患者賠償等方面通力合作, 有效地減緩并抑制了塵肺病的肆虐與蔓延。20世紀英國對煤工塵肺認知與治理的開創性及實踐性, 為世界其他地區同類職業病的防治提供了有益的借鑒。

  關鍵詞:英國; 煤工塵肺; 塵肺病研究小組; 工業肺部疾病委員會; 國家煤炭局;

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20世紀英國煤礦工人塵肺病蔓延、誤讀及防治

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  一、英國煤礦工人塵肺病的蔓延及成因

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  二、英國社會對煤工塵肺的誤讀與正視

  CHENFEIBINGSHIYIZHONGGULAODESHEHUIXIANXIANG,XILUODUODEZAOZAIGONGYUANQIAN4SHIJISHIJIUJIZAILEYIZHONGFASHENGZAIKUANGGONGSHENSHANGDEJIBING,ZHENGZHUANGLEISIYUQIANZHONGDU,ZHEDAGAISHIZUIZAOGUANYUZHIYEBINGDEJILU。16SHIJIZHONGQI,DEGUOXUEZHEAGELIKELAYIJIRUISHILIANJINSHUSHIPALASAIERSUSIDOUMIAOSHUGUOYIZHONGCHUXIANZAIKUANGGONGSHENSHANGDEGUGUAIFEIBING。23GONGYEGEMINGZAOQI,YINGGUOYIZHIHUSHICHENFEIBINGYUCAIKUANGZHIJIANDEGUANXI。19SHIJIZHONGQI,YINGGUOYIXUEJIEKAISHIZHONGSHIGONGRENJIANKANGYUKUANGJINGKONGQIZHILIANGZHIJIANDEGUANXI,BINGJIANGQIZUOWEIYIZHONGBINGZHENGJINXINGYANJIU。1831NIAN,YUEKEJUNDENEIKEYISHENGCHAERSI·SAKELAZHUYIDAOHENDUOMEIKUANGGONGRENHUANYOUXIAOCHUAN;TONGNIAN,LINGYIMINGSUGELANYISHENGGELIGAOLIZAIWENZHANGZHONGYETIDAOZHEZHONGXIAOCHUANBING,DANGSHIDABUFENYISHENGTUIDUANZHESHIYOUYUXIRUSHOUDAOBAOZHAWURANDEKONGQIHUOSHIJINGCHANGBAOLUZAIYOUDENGXIACHANSHENGDEMEIYANSUOZHI。24CIHOU,YUELAIYUEDUODEHUANZHECHUXIANZAIYISHENGJILUDEBINGLIHEYIXUEWENXIANZHONG,YINGGUOSHEHUIYIPUBIANRENSHIDAOMEIKUANGGONGRENZHONGLIUXINGZHUYIZHONGYINGUOLIANGXIRUMEICHENERYOUFADEHUXIDAOJIBING,CIJIBINGCHUBANYOUKETANDENGZHENGZHUANGWAI,HUANZHEFEIBUZAIWANQIHUANHUICHENGXIANCHUHEISEBINGBIAN。25DANYOUYUYIXUESHUIPINGSUOXIAN,QUESHAOCHIXUDEDIAOCHAYANJIUYUXIANGGUANSHIYAN,YUSHICHUXIANDUIMEIGONGCHENFEIDERENZHIPIANCHAYUWUDU。

秒速赛车6码计划   1861NIAN,YINGGUOBINGLIXUEJIAYUEHAN·XIMENGZAI《GONGGONGJIANKANGBAOGAO》ZHONGTIDAO,YINGGELANBEIBUCUNZAIXIONGQIANGBUSHIWENTIDEMEIKUANGGONGRENMINGXIANSHAOYUWEIERSHI,TAJIANGGAIXIANXIANGDEYUANYINGUIJIEWEIBUTONGDIQUTONGFENGSHEBEIBIAOZHUNDECHAYI。LINGYIWEIGELINHAOYISHENGDIAOCHALELIANGDI53MINGMEIKUANGGONGREN,FAXIANTAMENDANGZHONGDEDADUOSHUDOUHUANYOUMANXINGZHIQIGUANYAN。QIHOU,SUIZHUYINGGUOGEDISHANGBAODECHENFEIBINGLIYUKUANGGONGQICHUANBINGLIZHUJIANJIANSHAO,RENMENKAISHIXIANGXIN,NEIXIEFASHENGZAIMEIGONGSHENSHANGDEYANZHONGFEIBUSUNSHANGYISHUYULISHI。YINGGUOZHIYEBINGYIXUEJIATUOMASI·AOLIFUGENGSHIDADANPINGLUN,MEIGONGDELAODONGTIAOJIANYIJINGYOULEHENDAGAISHAN,RUGUOBUKAOLVKENENGDEBAOZHA,CAIMEIYISHIYIFENANQUANDEGONGZUO。261914NIAN,SITAFUDEJUNYIWEIYIXUEZHUANJIASHAFOBOTANGENJU1907NIANYIFENGONGYEJIBINGBUMENWEIYUANHUIDEBAOGAODECHUXIANGTONGJIELUN,RENWEIZAIYINGGUOMEIKUANGGONGRENFEIBUDEXIANWEIHUAZHENGZHUANGJIHUYIJINGJUEJI。27DANGSHIYIXUEJIEJIANGMEIGONGFEIBUJIBINGDEJIANSHAOGUIYINYUQITAYINSU,RUMEIKUANGTONGFENGSHEBEIDECHIXUGAIJINHEJINGXIAGONGZUOSHIJIANDESUOJIAN。28DANSHIJISHANG,19SHIJIHE20SHIJIQIANQICHENGQIANSHANGWANDEGONGRENYINCHENFEIBINGZHISI,BUGUOTAMENDESIYINBEIWUZHENWEIFEIJIEHE、MANXINGZHIQIGUANYANHUOXIAOCHUAN。ZHENGRUYUEHAN·ALIQIZAITADESHUZHONGXIEDAO:“ZHEXIEJIBINGBEIRENWEISHIBUTONGXUNCHANGDE,NEISHIYINWEIRENMENBUQINGCHUKUANGGONGDEGONGZUOHUANJINGSHIZENYANGDE。HUANZHELAIDAOYIYUANYIZHIKESOU,KESHIQUEBEITIESHANGZHIQIGUANYANYUQICHUANDEBIAOQIAN,WUFAYINQIBINGLIXUEJIADEZHUYI。ERZHENGSHIYINWEIBINGLIXUEYANJIUDEQUEFA,DAOZHIWOMENDUIMEIGONGCHENFEIMEIYOUWANZHENGERQINGXIDERENSHI”。29ZHEZHONGMANGMULEGUANDAOZHILE20SHIJIYINGGUOZUIDADEZHIYEWEISHENGZAINAN。

  JINGUANZAI1882NIANDEGUOYIXUEJIALUOBOTE·KEHEFAXIANFEIJIEHESHIJISHANGSHIYOUYIZHONGBINGYUANJUNYINQIDE,30QIELUNQINFAXIANDEXSHEXIANYEYOUZHUYUYIXUEJIADUIFEIBUJIBINGDEYANJIUHERENSHI,DANQUFENFEIJIEHE、ZHIQIGUANYANYUCHENFEIBINGRENGRANFEICHANGKUNNAN。SUIHOUDEQINGXINGBIANDEGENGJIAFUZA,YINWEIDANGSHIYOUJIWEIZHIMINGYIXUEZHUANJIARENWEIMEICHENSHIJISHANGKEYIDUIKUANGGONGQIDAOBAOHUZUOYONG,SHITAMENYUANLIFEIJIEHEDEWEIHAI。31GUANYUMEIKUANGFENCHENDUIKUANGGONGJIANKANGYOULIDEGUANDIANKEYIZHUISUDAO18SHIJI。1763NIAN,YIWEIMINGJIAOKELAPIER (Clapier) DEFAGUOYISHENGCHENGGONGZHIYULEYIMINGFEIJIEHEHUANZHE,TARANGHUANZHEZAIMEIKUANGZHONGSHENGHUOYIDUANSHIJIANDEZHILIAOFANGFAQUDEXIANZHUCHENGGONG。KELAPIERFENXIZHIYUDEYUANYINSHIBINGRENZAIKUANGZHONGXIRULELIUHUANG,DANQITADADUOSHUYIXUEJIARENWEISHITANYUANSUQIDAOLEGUANJIANZUOYONG———DANGBINGRENFEIBUDEKUIYANGBEIMEICHENBAOGUODESHIHOU,TAMENJIUHUIMANMANQUANYU。3219SHIJI80NIANDAI,YINGGUODESIMATEYISHENGRENWEIFEIJIEHEZAIMEIKUANGGONGRENZHONGYOUJIAODIFABINGLVSHIYINWEITANYUANSUJUBEIKANGJUN、SHADUDEXIAOGUO。TAZAIGEIAIDINGBAOWEISHENGXUEHUIDEXINZHONGXIEDAO:MEICHEN———HUOZHEGENGQUEQIEDISHUOSHITAN———YIQIXIANZHUDEKANGJUNZUOYONGHENHAODIBAOHULERENTIDEFEIBUQIGUAN。33YIXUEJIEZAIFEIJIEHEYUCHENFEIBINGGUANXIWENTISHANGCHONGMANZHENGYI,YIDINGCHENGDUSHANGYINGXIANGDAOZHIQIGUANYANYUCHENFEIBINGDEZHILIAO。1915NIAN,YIXUEJIAKELISILIYONGXGUANGJISHUDECHUJIELUN:ZAISUOYOUCHENFEIBINGJIQIBINGFAZHENGZHONG,WEIHAIZUIDADESHIZHIQIGUANYANERBUSHIMEIGONGCHENFEI。SUGELANSHENGLIXUEJIAYUEHAN·HUOERDANRENTONGZHEYIGUANDIAN,TAPINGLUNSHUO:“ZAIMEIKUANGGONGRENDERICHANGGONGZUOZHONG,WOMENSHANGWEIFAXIANYINXIRUMEICHENHUOSHIXIEERDAOZHISHANGHAIDETONGJIXUEZHENGJU。YINERWODADANTUICE,KUANGGONGMENPINGSHIXIRUDEFENCHENKEYISHITAMENMIANYUZAOSHOUGENGDADEWEIXIAN。”3420SHIJI30NIANDAIQIANQI,SUIZHULINCHUANGXUE、FANGSHEXUEYANJIUDEJINBU,YIJIDUIMEIKUANGGONGRENSHITIJIEPOUSHULIANGDEZENGDUOHESIWANGLVTONGJISHUJUKEKAOXINGDEZENGQIANG,YOUGUANMEIKUANGGONGRENFEIBUJIBINGDEYANJIUDEYIGENGWEISHENRUHEXIZHI,ZHESHIHUOERDANDENGRENDEGUANDIANYUELAIYUESHOUDAOZHIYI。

  1913NIAN,YINGGUOCHENGLIYIXUEYANJIUHUI,YANJIUHUIDIYICIQUANTIHUIYIJIUQUEDINGTADEZHIQUANYINGBAOKUODUIMOUXIEGONGYEJIBINGDEDIAOCHAYANJIU。35YUCITONGSHI,JUNXUGONGCHANGGONGRENJIANKANGWEIYUANHUI (Health of Munitions Workers’Committee) CHENGLI,ZHESHIYINGGUOWEIFANGZHIZHIYEBINGSUOCAIQUDEZUIJUKAITUOXINGDEGUOJIAGANYUCUOSHIZHIYI。“YIZHAN”JIESHUHOU,JIANKANGWEIYUANHUIXUANGAOJIESAN,DANYIXUEYANJIUHUIJIXULIUCUNBINGCHIXUGUANZHUGONGYEXIAOLVYUJIANKANGWENTI。361930NIAN,YIXUEYANJIUHUIYINGYINGGUONEIZHENGBUZHIQINGCHENGLIGONGYEFEIBUJIBINGWEIYUANHUI (Industrial Pulmonary Diseases Committee) ,GAIWEIYUANHUIZAIYINGGUOMEIGONGCHENFEIDEZAIRENZHIGUOCHENGZHONGBANYANLEZHIGUANZHONGYAODEJIAOSE。1935NIANCHUN,HUOERDANJIANGYIXUEZHUANJIAZAIYANCHENWENTISHANGDEBUTONGGUANDIANZHUANDAGEILEGONGYEFEIBUJIBINGWEIYUANHUI,ERCISHIBEIBOHUIDEFEIBUJIBINGPEICHANGSHENQINGZHANZONGSHENQINGSHUDEBILIYIJINGCONG1933NIANDE22%SHANGSHENGDAO1935NIANDE50%。37ZHENGSHIZAICIBEIJINGXIA,GONGYEFEIBUJIBINGWEIYUANHUICAIJUEDINGDUIXIFEIBINGJINXINGYANJIU,BINGLIJIXIANGYIXUEYANJIUHUIHENEIZHENGBUBAOGAO。BUJIU,GONGYEFEIBUJIBINGWEIYUANHUIWANCHENGLEYIXIANGZHENDUISUGELANJINLUOHELIWENLVKUANGGONGRENFENCHENXIRUDESHIYAN,CIHOUSUOYOUZHENDUIMEIKUANGGONGRENDEDAGUIMOLINCHUANGZHENDUANHEFANGSHEXINGYANJIU,DOUZAIQICHENGGONGJINGYANJICHUSHANGKAIZHAN。

  ZAISHENRUDIAOCHAQIAN,GONGYEFEIBUJIBINGWEIYUANHUISHOUJILENANWEIERSHIMEIKUANGZHONGGUANYUXIFEIBINGFABINGLVDESHUJU,BINGYUDANGDIKUANGGONGLIANHEHUIQUDELIANXI,HOUZHEDEXIEZHUDUICHENGGONGDIAOYANZHIGUANZHONGYAO。1937NIAN12YUE,GONGYEFEIBUJIBINGWEIYUANHUIBADIAOYANZHONGDIANFANGZAIDUI560MINGKUANGGONGDELINCHUANGZHENDUANYUFANGSHEXINGJIANCHASHANG,ZHEXIEKUANGGONGLAIZIWEIERSHIAMANFUDEDEYIZUOWUYANMEIKUANG。6GEYUEHOU,MEIWEIKUANGGONGDOUJIESHOULEYIXUEJIANCHA,XIANGGUANJIEGUOBEIZHENGLIWEIXIANGXIDEZHIYEBINGSHIZILIAO。HOULAI,YIXUEYANJIUHUICHUBANLE3FENBAOGAO,BINGJIANGQIZUOWEIWEIYUANHUIXILIEZHUANTIBAODAODEYIBUFEN。38YIXUEYANJIUHUIDEGONGZUORENYUANXIANGXIN,CHENFEIBINGFABINGLVYUCHICUNXIAOYU5WEIMIDEMEICHENKELINONGDUZHIJIANYOUZHUHENQIANGDEXIANGGUANXING,TAMENHUANRENWEIMOUXIETESHULEIXINGDEFENCHENGENGWEIXIAN。LIRU,FEILIPU·HATEHEAIDEHUA·ASILITEZAIGUANYUAMANFUDEMEIKUANGDEYANJIUBAOGAOZHONGZHICHU,WUYANMEIFENCHENDEWEIHAIXINGZUIQIANG。39CHUQI,RENMENTUIDUANZHESHIYOUYUMEITANPINJIDECHAYIERYINQIDE,YINWEICHENFEIBINGZAIWUYANMEICHANQUFABINGLVZUIGAO。DANSHI,YINGGUOCHENFEIBINGYANJIUXIAOZUSHOURENZUCHANGCHAERSI·FULAICHEQUEBURENTONGSHANGSHUGUANDIAN,TARENWEI:“WUYANMEIKUANGZHONGCHENFEIBINGDEFABINGLVZHISUOYIRUCIZHIGAO,BINGFEIYINWEIMEICHENLEIXINGTESHU,ERSHIYOUYUKONGQIZHONGFENBUZHUGENGDUOMEICHEN。”40

  ZAIGONGYEFEIBUJIBINGWEIYUANHUIDIAOYANJICHUSHANG,YIXUEYANJIUHUIJIANYIZAIPEICHANGFANGANZHONGYONG“MEIKUANGGONGRENCHENFEIBING”DAITI“XIFEIBING”。JIYUCI,WULUNSHI“GONGZUOMIANDEMEIKUANGGONGRENHUANSHIYANSHIKAIZAOGONGREN,SHENZHISHIMATOUSHANGDEMEITANZHUANGXIEGONG”,DOUKEYIHUODEPEICHANG。411943NIAN,ZHENGFUZHIDING《MEIKUANGYE (CHENFEI) PEICHANGJIHUA》,SUOYOUYINYANCHEN、SHIMIANCHENHUOQITAFENCHENDAOZHIFEIBUXIANWEIHUADEMEIKUANGGONGRENDOUZAIGAIFANGANDESHIYONGFANWEINEI。ZHICI,MEIKUANGGONGRENCHENFEIBINGDEDAOZHENGFUCHENGREN,DANZHUDUOWENTIRENGBUQINGXI。

  CHENFEIBINGYANJIUXIAOZUZHENGSHIZAICIBEIJINGXIA,XIANGYINGYIXUEYANJIUHUIDETIYIERCHENGLIDE。YANJIUXIAOZUHUIJILEGEGELINGYUDEZHUANJIAXUEZHE,RUNEIKEYISHENG、SHENGLIXUEJIA、BINGLIXUEJIA、WULIXUEJIA、SHENGWUGONGCHENGXUEJIAHETONGJIXUEJIADENG,MUBIAOSHIQUEDINGBUTONGNONGDUHUOZHEBUTONGXINGZHIDEMEICHENYUHUANBINGLVDEGUANXI,YIJIQUEDINGSHIKUANGGONGKEYIANQUANGONGZUODECHENNONGDU。42

秒速赛车6码计划   1950NIANDAICHU,YIXUEJIETICHULEXYINGXIANGDE“LIANGBINGLUN” (Two diseases theory) ,QUERENCHENFEIBINGFENWEILIANGZHONGLEIXING:YILEICHENGZUODANCHUNXINGCHENFEI (simple pneumoconiosis) ,XINGTAITEZHENGSHIXIAODIANZHUANGDAZHICHENGYUANXINGDEYINYING,QISHULIANGYUXIRUFENCHENZONGLIANGYOUGUAN,TUOLIFENCHENGONGZUOCHANGSUOHOUYINYINGSHULIANGBUZAIZENGJIA;LINGYILEICHENGZUOHEBINGZHENGXINGCHENFEI (Complicated pneumoconiosis) , XXIANYINGXIANGXINGTAISHIXINGZHUANGBUGUIZHENGDEDATUANKUAIYINYING,DUOZAIYOUXIANGDANGSHULIANGDEXIAODIANZHUANGYINYINGDEBEIJINGXIACHUXIAN。TADEBINGLIJICHUSHIDAKUAIXIANWEIHUATUANKUAI,TEDIANSHITUOLIFENCHENGONGZUOCHANGHOUBINGQINGRENGJIXUJINZHAN,CHENGYINSHIFENCHENYIWAIDEYUANYINSUOZHI,ZHUYAOSHIYOUYUJIEHEGANRANSUOZAOCHENG。WEIJINGQUEMEIGONGCHENFEIDEHUANBINGCHENGDU,CHENFEIBINGYANJIUXIAOZUBAFANGSHEPIANFENCHENGSIJI,CONG0JI (ZHENGCHANGDE) ,DAO1JI、2JI、3JICHENFEI。1950NIAN,GUOJILAOGONGZUZHIZAIAODALIYAXINIZHAOKAIDEDISANJIEGUOJICHENFEIBINGZHUANJIAHUIYISHANGCAIYONGLE“SIJI”FENLEIFA。CONG1952NIANDAO1963NIAN,CHENFEIBINGYANJIUXIAOZURENGYOUXIANGUANZHUMEIGONGCHENFEI,DANYANJIUFANWEIZHUJIANKUOZHANDAOMANXINGFEIBINGBINGRENDEFEIJINGMOXUEYA、DONGMOXUEYA、JIANPILIUZHONGDEYICHUANYINSUHEYINGXIANGDONGMOXUEYADEYINSU。70NIANDAIHOU,YANJIUFANWEIGENGJIAGUANGFAN,BAOKUOSHIMIANFEI、JIANPILIUYIJILANKAIXIAMIANFANGCHANGGONGRENDEHUXIKUNNANDENG。1985NIAN,CHENFEIBINGYANJIUXIAOZUJIESAN,CONGJIANLIZHICHU,TAYIZHISHIYINGGUOGONGYECHENFEIBINGZUIZHONGYAODEZHINANGTUAN,GAOSHUIPINGDEYANJIUGONGZUOSHIYIXUEJIEHEQUANSHIJIEDUIMEIGONGCHENFEIDOUYOULEKEXUEDERENZHI,YEWEIYINGGUOYUFANGBINGZHILICHENFEIBINGZUOCHULEJUDAGONGXIAN。

  三、英國對煤工塵肺的預防與治理

  MEIGONGCHENFEIZAIYINGGUOGEDIDESINVEYUMANYAN,YANZHONGYINGXIANGLEGONGRENDESHENTIJIANKANGYUZHENGCHANGSHENGHUO。MEICHENDEWEIXIEJIHUSHISUOYOUMEIKUANGGONGRENZAIGONGZUOJINIANHOUCHANSHENGHUXIJICU、KESOU、HEITANDENGZHENGZHUANG,YANZHONGZHEKEDAOZHICANJIHUOSIWANG。WEICI,YINGGUOKUANGGONGGONGHUIYUYIMEITANJUWEIDAIBIAODEZHENGFUZUZHIDUICHENFEIBINGZHANKAILECHANGQIDEYUFANGYUZHILI。GONGHUIZHANZAIMEIKUANGGONGRENDEJIAODUDUCUZHENGFUHEQIYESHISHIFANGCHENCUOSHI,POSHIZHENGFULIFAHEQIYEZHIXINGXIANGGUANFAAN;GUOJIAMEITANJUZEYILIFASHOUDUANMINGQUEFANGCHENDEYIWUHEZEREN,LIANGZHETONGLIHEZUOQUDELEXIANZHUCHENGXIAO。ZI20SHIJI70NIANDAIQI,CHENFEIBINGZAIYINGGUOSHEHUIKAISHIBEIYOUXIAOYIZHI,MEIQIANMINGSHOUGUGONGRENDECHENFEIBINGFABINGLVBUDUANXIAJIANG,ZAIZHIHOU10NIANYIJIGENGCHANGSHIJIANLI,XINFAXIANDEMEIGONGCHENFEIBINGLISHUCHIXUJIANSHAO。ZUIZHONGZAISAQIEERSHIDAISHISHIDENENGYUANJIEGOUDIAOZHENGZHONG,YIJINKOUMEITANTIDAIMEITANKAICAIDENGZHENGCE,SHIYINGGUOMEIKUANGGONGRENCHENFEIBINGDEYICONGGENYUANSHANGDUJUE。

秒速赛车6码计划   DUIMEIGONGCHENFEIDEYUFANGYUZHILI,ZHENGFUHEYIXUEJIEWANGWANGZHIHOUYUGONGHUIZUZHISUOZUODENULI。ZUOWEIGONGRENWEIHUZISHENLIYIZUCHENGDETUANTI,GONGHUIHENZAOGUANZHUMEIGONGCHENFEIWENTI。1863NIAN,NUOSENBOLANKUANGGONGXIEHUICHENGLISHI,TAMENJIUZHUNBEISHELIJIUZHUJIJIN。43TAMENWEIGONGRENSHANGCANPEICHANG、HUANBINGDENGTIGONGJINGJIHEFALVDENGDUOFANGMIANZHICHI。1937NIAN,YIXUEYANJIUWEIYUANHUIZAIWEIERSHIDIQUJINXINGMEIGONGCHENFEIDIAOCHAYANJIUSHI,YINGGUOMEITANGONGHUIJIJIPEIHE、TIGONGGELEIZILIAO。YINGGUOMEITANGONGHUIHUANNULIKUODA《XIFEIBINGPEICHANGFAAN》DESHIYONGFANWEI。1919NIAN,DANGXIFEIBINGBEIDINGWEIZHIYEBINGSHI,ZHENGFUBANBU《XIFEIBINGPEICHANGFAAN》,DANPEICHANGJINXIANYUCAIGUIGONGYEDEGONGREN。NANWEIERSHIKUANGGONGLIANHEHUITONGGUOKAIZHANDUOFANGXIEDIAOYUKANGYI,1928NIANDELIFACAIKUODADAOMEITANKUANGGONG。38DANSHI,FAANBINGMEINENGBAOKUOSUOYOUCHENFEIBINGHUANZHE,TAGUIDINGLEMEIKUANGHUANBINGGONGRENHUODEPEICHANGDETIAOJIAN,BIXUTIGONGDANGDIFATINGCHUSHIDEBAOLUZAIERYANGHUAGUIFENCHENZHONGDEZHENGMINGHEZAICHAOGUO80%ERYANGHUAGUINONGDUCHANGSUOGONGZUODEHETONG。GAIGUIDINGSHIDALIANGCHENFEIBINGHUANZHEBEIPAICHUYUPEICHANGZHIWAI。YINCI,MEIKUANGGONGHUIJIXUWEIPEICHANGFAANERDOUZHENG,JUXINGJIHUIYOUXING,XIANGZHENGFUKANGYISHIYA,ZUIZHONGZAI1934NIANGEXINGYE (XIFEI) XIUDINGJIHUAZHONG,QUXIAOLEGUANYUYUERYANGHUAGUIJIECHUDEZHENGMINGTIAOKUAN。GONGHUIHUANWEIMEIGEKUANGGONGZUZHISHELIPEICHANGMISHU,ZHUANMENFUZEHUANZHEDEPEICHANGWENTI。JUTONGJI,20SHIJI50NIANDAIQUANYINGGUOGONGYOU5WANMINGGONGRENYIJU《GONGRENPEICHANGFA》HUODEPEICHANG,QIZHONG60%JIZHONGZAIMEITANKAICAIYE,DAYUEYOU1WANMINGSHIZAINANWEIERSHIDEMEIKUANGGONGREN,ZHANZONGSHUDE20%。

秒速赛车6码计划   WEIBAOHUMEIKUANGGONGRENDEJIANKANGYUANQUAN,GONGHUIZHUZHANGSHELIYIGONGRENWEIDAIBIAODEKUANGQUJIANDUYUAN。ZHEYIGEMINGXINGDEJIANYI,SHIJISHANGSHIGONGRENZIJIFUZEKUANGJINGANQUAN。45ZAIFANGCHENJIANGCHENZHONG,GONGHUIRENWEIXIAOCHUMEITANGONGRENJIECHUMEICHENSHIKONGZHIJIBINGDEGENBENSHOUDUAN,TAKEYITONGGUOSHIDANGDEJIANGCHENFANGFALAIJIANDIJIBINGDEFASHENG。46WEICI,GONGHUIYIZHIHUYUTONGGUOXINDELIFACUOSHI,ZAIKUANGJINGZHONGQUANMIANQIANGZHIJIANGCHEN。“《MEIKUANGFA》ZAILAOGONGBAOHUFANGMIANDEGUIDINGGENGJIAJUTI:MEIYIGEKUANGCHANGDOUBIXUTIGONGCHONGZUDETONGFENG,BINGSHIMEIKUANGDEKONGQI、DAOLUDENGYIQIESHESHISHIHEYUZHENGCHANGGONGZUO”。431935NIAN,NANWEIERSHIKUANGGONGLIANHEHUIZAIFANGCHENJIANGCHENFANGMIANXIANGZHENGFUTICHULIUXIANGJIANYI:XIANGMEIKUANGZHUSHUI、SHIZHAN、PENTU、FANGCHENQIXIE、DAOLUQINGJIEJIXIANZHIBAOPO。TONGGUOZHEXIECUOSHI,JIANGDIGONGRENGONGZUOHUANJINGZHONGDEFENCHEN。NANWEIERSHIKUANGGONGLIANHEHUIHUANHEMEIKUANGZHUYITONGCHUZI,BIANZUANYIZHIFENCHENDEZILIAO,WEIJIANGCHENTIGONGZHILIZHICHI。GUOJIAMEITANJUCHENGLIHOU,YEXISHOULEZHEXIEYIZHIFENCHENDEJINGYAN。KEYISHUO,“YINGGUOMEIKUANGGONGHUIZAIZHIYEWEISHENGZHENGCEFANGMIANQIDAOLEFEICHANGJIJIDEZUOYONG,TABUJINZAIZHENGQUBUCHANGFAANSHANG,ERQIEZAICHENFEIBINGDEYUFANGHEKANGFUDENGFANGMIANYEFAHUILEZHONGYAODEZUOYONG”。47CIWAI,YINGGUOGONGHUI,TEBIESHIMEIKUANGGONGHUIDEBUDUANKANGYI、SHIYA、TUIDONGHEJIANDU,POSHIGUOJIAMEITANJUSHIYINGXINGSHI,BUDUANTUIJINXIANGGUANFAANDEBANBUHECUOSHILUOSHI,GONGTONGYUFANGYUZHILIYUYIYANZHONGDECHENFEIBINGWENTI。

秒速赛车6码计划   WEIJIEJUE“ERZHAN”HOUYINGGUOMEITANGONGYECHUXIANDEWENTI,YINGGUOZHENGFUZAI1946NIANKAISHIDUIMEITANGONGYESHIXINGGUOYOUHUA,BINGZUJIANGUOJIAMEITANJU,FUZEGUANXIADANGSHIYINGGUOSUOYOUDEMEIKUANG、KUANGJINGYIJIXIANGGUANDEGONGZUORENYUANHESHEBEI。MIANDUIRIYIYANJUNDEMEIGONGCHENFEIBINGXINGSHI,MEITANJUXUANCHENG,ZAIQISUOYOUZHIZEZHONGMEIYOUSHENMEBIMEIKUANGGONGRENDEJIANKANGHEFULIGENGWEIZHONGYAO。48YINCI,CHONGFENFAHUIZISHENZHINENG,FUCHUDALIANGNULI,CHENGWEIKANGJIMEIGONGCHENFEIBINGDEZHONGYAOLILIANG。

  SHOUXIAN,MEITANJUGOUJIANLEKUANGGONGSHENTIJIANKANGHEANQUANJIBENBAOZHANGTIXI。CHENGLIMEIKUANGYILIAOFUWUBU (Mines Medical Service) ,ZHESHIMEITANJUJUEXINGAISHANKUANGGONGYILIAOFULIDEJIJIALIZHENG,YESHIKUANGGONGYILIAOFULIDEYOUXIAOJIGOU。1947NIAN,YINGGUOYIJIANCHENG5GEYILIAOFUWUZHONGXIN,ZAIJIANDEYOU24GEYIJI5GEJINGGUOGAIJIANDEJIJIUSHI。49RENMINGSHOUXIYILIAOGUAN,MEITANJUJIEZHUMEIKUANGYILIAOFUWUBUDELILIANGKAIZHANXINGDONG,YOU65WEIYISHENGHE300MINGHUSHIXIEZHU,ZAIYINGGUOGEKUANGQUZHONGYOU2WANMINGGONGRENJIESHOULEJIJIUXUNLIAN。SUIHOU,MEIKUANGZHONGDEJIJIUXUNLIANQUDEFEISUJINZHAN,ZHI1947NIANDI,ZAITONGJIDE99ZUOMEIKUANGZHONGYOU8.7WANRENQUDELEJIJIUCONGYEZIGE。50CONG20SHIJI50NIANDAIDAO70NIANDAI,MEIKUANGZHONGYILIAOFUWUBUMENDEKUOZHANSHIQICHENGWEIQUANYINGGUOZUIDADEGONGYEWEISHENGFUWUJIGOUZHIYI,GUYONGJIN40MINGYIWURENYUANHE200DUOMINGHUSHI。51CHUFUZECHUJIJIJIUGONGZUOWAI,MEIKUANGYILIAOFUWUBUHUANWEIXINKUANGGONGJINXINGSHENTIJIANCHABINGFUZEJIANCEKUANGGONGDEJIANKANGZHUANGKUANG。ZHI1959NIAN,WEIQUANTIKUANGGONGDINGQIJINXINGXGUANGJIANCHACHENGWEIMEITANJUDEFADINGYIWUZHIYI。1974NIAN,ZHEZHONGTIJIANYOUMEI5NIANBIANWEIMEI4NIANYICI。52MEITANJUHUANSHELIKEXUEBUDUICHENFEIBINGJINXINGSHENRUYANJIU,CHENGLIGELEIZIXUNWEIYUANHUIYUGUWENXIAOZU,ZHUANMENYINGDUIYUCHENFEIBINGXIANGGUANDEWENTI。TONGGUOZHEXIECUOSHI,MEITANJUJIAOWEICHENGGONGDIGOUJIANQIKUANGGONGJIANKANGHEANQUANFANGMIANDEJIBENBAOZHANGTIXI。

  QICI,JIJICAIYANG、CEDINGKUANGJINGZHONGDEFENCHENNONGDU,WEIMEIKUANGGONGRENYINGZAOANQUANDEGONGZUOHUANJING。GUOJIAMEITANJUCHENGLIFENCHENCAIYANGHEFENXIWEIYUANHUI,BUDUANGENGXINFENCHENCAIYANGYIQI,YONGRELIJICHENQISHOUJIGENGJIAXIWEIDEFENCHENKELI,YISHOUDONGBENGMIBUQIZAIXIANCHANGGUSUANZHONGDIEDEQUEXIAN,SHIHANCHENKONGQILIUJINGYIGEZHIZHIYUANPANBINGZAISHANGMIANLIUXIAWUZI,YIBIANCAIYANGGENGJIAZHUNQUE。53JINZAI1949NIANJIEZHUXINSHIGONGJUJIUCAIJILE40WANFENFENCHENYANGBEN。CIWAI,TUIXINGXINDEFENCHENCAIYANGFANGFA、SHELIFENCHENNONGDUDEYANGEBIAOZHUN。ZAITIANYEDIAOCHAXIANGMUSHANG,1969NIANKAIZHANLINSHIXINGBIAOZHUNYANJIUHOU,MEITANJUZHUDONGCAIQULEYIZHONGGENGWEIYANGEDEJIYUJILIANGDEFENCHENBIAOZHUN,ZHEYIBIAOZHUNSHIYOUYAGEBUSENDENGRENZAI1970NIANFABIAODELUNWENZHONGTUIJIANDE。GAIBIAOZHUNGUIDING,MEIKUANGKONGQIZHONGDEFENCHENHANLIANGBIXUJIANGDIZHI8mg/m3。541971NIAN,MEITANJUFAXINGDE《ZHENGFUPIZHUNDEMEIKUANGKONGQIFENCHENTIAOJIAN:CAIYANGDEBIAOZHUNYUCHENGXU》BAOHANDUIFENCHENZHENGCEDEYIXIANGSHENGMING:JI“YINGGUOMEITANJUDEMUBIAOJIUSHIYAOJIANGFENCHENJIANZHIZUIDIXIANDU,BINGRANG‘ZHENGFUPIZHUNDEFENCHENTIAOJIAN’ZAIMEIYICHUGONGZUOCHANGSUODEDAOGUANCHE。”55XINZHIDINGDE《MEIKUANGHUXIXINGFENCHENTIAOLI》YU1975NIANZHENGSHISHENGXIAO,TAJIANG1970NIANTICHUDETUIJIANXINGBIAOZHUNSHEZHIWEIHENGLIANGGONGZUOCHANGSUOFENCHENTIAOJIANSHIFOUANQUANDEBIAOZHUN。1977NIANCHUTAIDETIAOLIZEGENGWEIYANGE,BAMEIKUANGZHONGYUNXUDEMEICHENZUIDANONGDUCONG8mg/m3JIANGWEI7mg/m3。54JINGUAN《MEIKUANGHUXIXINGFENCHENTIAOLI》RENGYOUBUSHAOQUEXIAN,DANTADEZHIDINGHETUIXINGFANKAILEYINGGUODUIMEIKUANGSHIXINGGUOJIAGANYUDEXINPIANZHANG,SHIBAOHUMEIKUANGGONGRENMIANZAOCHENFEIBINGZHEMODEYIDAJINBU。

秒速赛车6码计划   DISAN,JIADACUOSHIYIZHIKUANGJINGZHONGDEMEICHEN。ZHUSHUISHIZAISITAFUDEJUNSHIYANZHONGHUODEDECHENGGONGFANGCHENCUOSHI,BUJINKEYIJIANGDIFENCHENNONGDU,ERQIEKEYISHIMEITANKAICAIBIANDEQINGSONG。ZHENGRUYIWEIFENCHENYIZHIGUANYUANSUOSHUO:“KUANGGONGMENZONGSHILEYUJIANDAOWO,YINWEIZHUSHUIHOUDESHUIYAHUISHIMEITANJIANJIANSONGDONG,RANGTAMENDEGONGZUOBIANDEQINGSONG。ZHEYESHITAMENWEISHENMEHUIBUDAISIHAOPIANJIANHEYUANYANJIESHOUZHUSHUICUOSHIDEYUANYIN。”56RUGUOSHUOZHUSHUIMIAOZHUNDESHIYINMEICENGJIAYAERCHANSHENGDEMEICHEN,NEIMEANZHUANGZAIMEITANQIEGEJISHANGDESHUIPENZUIZESHIWEILEXIAOCHUMEITANZAIFENJIESHISUOCHANSHENGDEMEICHEN。20SHIJI60NIANDAI,MEITANJUJIANCHIYAOQIUCAIMEIJIQIZHIZAOSHANGANZHUANGYOUXIAOYIZHIFENCHENDESHEBEI。GUOJIAMEITANJUHUANYANFAXINDECAIMEIJISHU,SHITUSHIGONGRENBUJINRUCAIMEIGONGZUOMIANJINXINGCAOZUO,RUYAOKONGCHANGBIGONGZUOMIANJISHU;KAIFAFANGCHENKOUZHAOBINGGULIGONGRENYANGCHENGPEIDAIDEXIGUAN,BIJIAOLIUXINGDEYOUDEERGEFANGCHENKOUZHAO、MADINGDAIERZHONGXINGFANGCHENKOUZHAOHEYICIXINGKOUZHAODENG,YONG“ZUIHOUDEFANGXIAN”YIZHIKUANGJINGZHONGDEMEICHEN,BAOHUMEIKUANGGONGRENSHENTIJIANKANG。JINGUANZAIFANGCHENCUOSHIDESHISHIGUOCHENGZHONGYUDAOLEHENDUOKUNNAN,DANMEITANJUDENULISHIMEIKUANGGONGRENCHENFEIBINGZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGDEDAOKONGZHI,FABINGLVKAISHICHUXIANXIAJIANGQUSHI。MEITANJUZAI1955NIANDENIANDUBAOGAOZHONGZHICHU:“SUIZHUMEITANJUFANGCHENCUOSHIDEBUDUANJINBU,CHENFEIBINGDEMANYANCHENGDUJIHUKEYIQUEDINGZAIJIANSHAO。”57

  MEIGONGCHENFEISHIXIANDAIYINGGUOKAICAIYEDAILAIDEZHIYEXINGZAINANZHIYI,JINGGUOGONGHUIYUMEITANJUDEYUFANGHEZHILI,ZAI20SHIJILIUQISHINIANDAIHOU,FABINGLVYUXINZENGBINGLIJUNMINGXIANXIAJIANG。JUTONGJI,ZAI1959-1963NIANYINGGUOMEIKUANGGONGRENCHENFEIBINGPINGJUNHUANBINGLVWEI12.2%,1969-1973NIANJIANGZHI10%,1978-1981NIANZEJIANGZHI4%。581979NIAN,SAQIEERFURENLINGDAODEBAOSHOUDANGSHANGTAI,ZHENDUIMEITANGONGYE+SUODAILAIDECHENFEIBING,SHISHILECONGGENBENSHANGDUJUECHENFEIBINGCHUXIANDEZHENGCE,JIYIJINKOUMEITANTIDAICIQIANDEMEITANKAICAI;DALIANGGUANBIMEIKUANGZUOYE,CAIJIANMEIKUANGGONGREN,XUNZHAOTIDAIXINGQINGJIENENGYUAN,JIANSHAOMEITANZAIGUOJIANENGYUANJIEGOUZHONGDEBILI。1979NIANSHI,ZHENGGEYINGGUORENGYOU223GEMEIKUANGKUANGJING,MEIKUANGGONGRENYUE23WANREN。CONG1985NIAN3YUEDAO1991NIAN3YUE,YINGGUOMEIKUANGGONGRENJIANSHAOLE114 000REN。1992NIANSHI,QUANGUOMEIKUANGGONGRENSHULIANGJINYIBUJIANSHAO,ZHISHENGXIA44 000REN,KUANGJINGJINCUN50GE。59DAO1994NIAN,YINGGUOZAICIGUANBIDALIANGKUANGJING,JINYUXIA16GEMEIKUANG,8000DUOMINGMEIKUANGGONGREN。60DAO2006NIANSHI,JINCUN6GEKUANGJING,MEIKUANGGONGREN3000REN。61MEITANCHANLIANGDEBUDUANXIAJIANGYUMEIKUANGGONGRENDECHIXUJIANSHAO,SHICHENFEIBINGXINZENGBINGLIJIANGZHILING。2015NIAN12YUE18RI,YINGGUOGUANBILEZUIHOUYIJIASHENCENGMEIKUANG———KAILINGLIMEIKUANG。ZHEYIWEIZHUYINGGUOMEITANSHIDAIDEZHONGJIE,YECONGGENBENSHANGZUZHILEMEIKUANGGONGRENCHENFEIBINGZAICIMANYANDEKENENG。

  結語

  YINGGUODECHIXUGONGYEHUATUIDONGQIJINGJIYUSHEHUIXUNSUFAZHAN,DANZAIMEITANGONGYELINGYUYEDAILAIMEIGONGCHENFEIZHEYIYANZHONGHOUGUO,SHIZHICHENGWEIYINGGUOZHIYEWEISHENGLISHISHANGZUIDADEZAINANZHIYI。CHENFEIBINGDECHUXIANJIQIMANYANSHIKUANGJINGZHONGELIEHUANJING、YIXUEJIERENSHIDEZHIHOUXING、CAIMEIJIXIEHUAYIJIMEIKUANGGONGRENGONGZITIZHIDENGYINSUGONGTONGZUOYONGDEJIEGUO。YINGGUOSHEHUIDUIMEIGONGCHENFEIDERENZHIJINGLIGUOPIANCHAHEQUZHE,YIXUEJIEDEGENJINDIAOYANHEQINGXIJIEDING,SHIQIZAI1943NIANBEICHENGRENWEIZHIYEBING。MEIGONGCHENFEIBINGDEYOUXIAOZHILISHIYINGGUOZHENGFU、GUOJIAMEITANJUHEKUANGGONGGONGHUIDENGGEFANGBOYIYUHEZUODEJIEGUO。ZHENGFUYONGLIFASHOUDUANMINGQUEFANGCHENYIWUHEZEREN,MEITANJUJUTIFUZEMEIKUANG、KUANGJINGHEGONGZUORENYUANDENGSHIWU,SHIZHILICHENFEIBINGDEZHONGYAOLILIANG;GONGHUIZECONGGONGRENJIANKANGCHUFA,DUNCUZHENGFUHEQIYESHISHIFANGCHENCUOSHI,POSHIZHENGFULIFAHEQIYEZHIXINGXIANGGUANFAAN。

  YINGGUODUIMEIGONGCHENFEIBINGDERENZHIYUZHILIJUYOUKAICHUANGXINGJISHIJIANXING。TAMENZAIGUANZHU、JIEDINGHECHENGRENMEIGONGCHENFEIBINGDETONGSHI,YEJIANGOULETADEGAINIANHEDENGJIFENLEI,RENZHIDEZHUBUSHENRUTIXIANZHUKEXUEYINGDUIDEGUOCHENG,BINGLIDEGONGTONGXINGWEIGUOJISHEHUIZHONGDEMEIGONGCHENFEIBINGQUELILEGAINIANDEBIAOZHUNHUA;YINGGUORENCHENGRENMEIGONGCHENFEIWEIZHIYEBING,CONGDUIMEIGONGCHENFEIDEQIANXIANGANZHIDAODAODEHUYU,CONGJINGJIXUQIUZAIDAODUIMEIKUANGGONGRENSHENGMINGJIANKANGDEGUANZHU,TIXIANZHUSHEHUIGUANNIANDEJINBU。20SHIJI,YINGGUODUIMEIGONGCHENFEIBINGDEZHILIQUJUEYUSUOCHUDELISHI、ZHENGZHIHUANJINGHEGONGHUI、ZHENGFUSUONENGKONGZHIDEZIYUAN,YOUYUYINGGUOJINGJI、SHEHUIHEZHENGZHISHENGHUODETEDIAN,QIZHILIGUOCHENGJUYOUDIANXINGXING;TONGSHI,YINGGUOZAIMEIGONGCHENFEIBINGZHILIZHONGSUOQUDEDEXIANZHUCHENGGUO,SUOJIANLIDEBIJIAOWANSHANDEWANGLUOHUAJIANGUANTIXIHESHISHIJIZHI,JUYOUJIDADEQIANYANXING,KEYIWEISHIJIEQITADIQUTONGLEIZHIYEBINGDEFANGZHITIGONGYOUYIJIEJIAN,CUJINRENLEIJIBINGFANGKONGDEFUZHI。