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美國高等院校智庫如何影響政府決策

添加時間:2019/10/21

  摘要:美國高校附屬智庫(以下簡稱高校智庫)建設起步較早,在政策研究方面為美國政府決策提供顯著支撐。在目標定位上相比中國高校智庫更加面向政府決策,這就決定了其政策思想、科研成果更容易對政府決策施加影響。文章以萊斯大學貝克公共政策研究所為例,從其目標定位、組織結構、資金來源體系以及研究領域與項目計劃等方面系統分析其影響政府決策的路徑和規律,以期為提升中國特色新型高校智庫服務政府決策能力方面提供借鑒。

  關鍵詞:秒速赛车6码计划大學智庫; 政府決策; 貝克公共政策研究所;

秒速赛车6码计划   2014NIAN,JIAOYUBUYINFA《ZHONGGUOTESEXINXINGGAOXIAOZHIKUJIANSHETUIJINJIHUA》,QUELILEZHONGGUOTESEXINXINGGAOXIAOZHIKUJIANSHEDEMUBIAO、FANGXIANGHERENWU。4NIANDUOLAI,GAOXIAOZHIKUJIANSHEPENGBOFAZHAN,DANSHI,MUQIANWOGUOGAOXIAOZHIKUFENLEI、DINGWEIBUQING,CHENGGUOFUWUJUECEDEGONGXIANLVDI,GUOJIYINGXIANGLILUOHOU,YUWOGUOGAOXIAOKEYANTILIANG、ZONGTISHILIBUFU。FUWUJUECENENGLISHIHENGLIANGGAOXIAOZHIKUYINGXIANGLIDEZUIZHONGYAOZHIBIAO。MEIGUOGAOXIAOZHIKUJIANSHEQIBUJIAOZAO,QIZHIDUSHEJI、SIXIANGCHANPINSHUCHU、XUANCHUANCELVEDENGFANGMIANJIAOWEICHENGSHU,DUIZHENGFUJUECEDEYINGXIANGJIAODA。BENWENYILAISIDAXUEBEIKEGONGGONGZHENGCEYANJIUSUOWEILI,XITONGFENXIQIYINGXIANGZHENGFUJUECEDETUJING,YIQIWEIWOGUOGAOXIAOZHIKUTISHENGFUWUZHENGFUJUECENENGLIFANGMIANTIGONGJIEJIAN。

  LAISIDAXUEBEIKEGONGGONGZHENGCEYANJIUSUO(YIXIAJIANCHENGYANJIUSUO)CHENGLIYU1993NIAN[1],JINNIANLAIFAZHANXUNSU,ZAIMEIGUOBINXIFANIYADAXUE“ZHIKUYUGONGMINSHEHUIXIANGMU”DE“QUANQIUZHIKUPINGJIABAOGAO”ZHONG,CONG2010NIANSHOUCIRUXUANDEDI16MING,DAO2017、2018NIANLIANXU2NIANWEILIEQUANQIUZUIJIAGAOXIAOFUSHUZHIKUDEDI3MING[2]。“QUANQIUZHIKUPINGJIABAOGAO”,ZHENDUIOUMEIZHIKUDEBUFEN,YOUQISHIDUIMEIGUOZHIKUDETANTAOZHIDERENKEYUKENDING[3],YINCI,BEIKEGONGGONGZHENGCEYANJIUSUOPAIMINGDECHIXUTIGAOYIDINGYOUQIDUOFANGMIANDEYUANYIN,JINGGUOFENXI,BENWENRENWEIQIZHUYAOTONGGUOYIXIATUJINGDUIZHENGFUJUECESHIJIAYINGXIANGLI。

  一、明確的目標定位

秒速赛车6码计划   YANJIUSUOZAIQICHENGLIZHICHU,MEIGUOQIANGUOWUQING、XIANWEIYANJIUSUOMINGYUZHUXIDEZHANMUSI·AIDISHENG·BEIKESANSHIJIDUIGAISUODEMUBIAODINGWEIJINXINGLEQINGXIDEBIAOSHU:YANJIUSUODEMUBIAOSHIZAISIXIANGSHIJIEHEXINGDONGSHIJIEZHIJIANDAJIANQIAOLIANG,XUEZHEMENYINGGAIZHIJIECONGZHENGZHIJIANEILIXUEDAOYINGXIANGZHENGCEDESHIJIXUQIU,ZHENGCEZHIDINGZHEHEZHENGZHIJIAYINGTINGQURUHEGAIJINQIGONGZUODEQIEHESHIJIDEYANJINDE、HEHULUOJIDEXUESHUFENXI,ZUOWEIXIAYIDAIXUEZHEHEZHENGZHIJIADEXUESHENG,YINGGAITONGGUOCANYUYANJIUSUODEHUODONGCHONGSHIZIJI,CONGERCHENGWEIGENGHAODEXUEZHEHEZHENGZHIJIA[4]。ZHEYIMUBIAODINGWEILIQINGLESANGEGUANXI:YISHICHANCHUSIXIANGDEZHIKUYUJUYOUJUECEXUQIUDEZHENGFUDEGUANXI;ERSHIZHIKUYANJIURENYUANYUZHENGCEZHIDINGZHE、ZHENGCEYINGXIANGZHEDEGUANXI;SANSHIZHENGCEYANJIUYURENCAIPEIYANGDEGUANXI。MINGQUEDEMUBIAODINGWEIWEIZHIKUCHANGQIFAZHANZHIMINGFANGXIANG,YOUYIYUZHIKUJUECEYINGXIANGLIDETISHENG。

  二、靈活的組織結構

  SHIYINGZHANLVEYAOQIUDEZUZHIJIEGOU,WEIZUZHIZHANLVEDESHISHIHEZUZHIMUBIAODESHIXIANTIGONGBAOZHANG[5]。GAOXIAOZHIKUZUOWEIYIZHONGTESHUDEKEYANZUZHI,QIZUZHIJIEGOUBIXUSHIYINGZHIKUDEMUBIAODINGWEIHEZHANLVEXUQIU。YANJIUSUOSHILISHUYULAISIDAXUEDEYIGEFEIYINGLIZUZHI,YULAISIDAXUEBAOCHILISHUGUANXIDANJUYOUYIDINGDULIDECAIQUAN。YANXIXUESHUJIGOUDETEDIANTONGSHICAIQUQIYEDEGUANLIFANGSHI,JUYOUYIDINGDELINGHUOXING。YOUSUOCHANGFUZONGZE,YANJIUSUOXIASHEGUWENWEIYUANHUI,YOULAIZIMEIGUOZHENGFUYIJIDAQIYEDEGAOGUANJIANREN,BAOZHENGLEYANJIUSUOYUJUECEHEXINDELIANJIE。YOURUOGANZHUANZHIRENYUANANZHIZEFENGONGZUCHENGGUANLIHEFUZHUTUANDUI,BAOKUOSUOCHANGZHULI、XINGZHENGXIEDIAOYUAN、BIANJI、MEITIZHUGUAN、CAIWUZONGJIANYIJIPINGMIANSHEJISHI、YINGYUNCEHUAKAIFADENGFANGMIANDERENYUAN,GUANLITUANDUIWANCHENGYANJIUSUORICHANGBANGONGYUNYING、XIEDIAOGOUTONGDEXIANGGUANSHIWU。YANJIUSUOXIASHE6GEYANJIUZHONGXIN,GONGYOUZHUANJIANZHIZHUANJIA160YUMING,YANJIUZHONGXINDEZHUANJIAHEXUEZHELAIZISHIJIEGEDI,YOUZHUANZHIYANJIUYUAN、KEZUOJIAOSHOUYIJIXUESHENGZHULI,ZHUANJIAHEXUEZHEYIJUYANJIUFANGXIANGZAIBUTONGDEYANJIUZHONGXINZHIJIANJIAOCHARENZHI。ZUZHIJIEGOUJIANQUANQIELINGHUO,YOUYIYUXUEZHEZHIJIANDEJIAOLIUYUXIEZUO,ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGBAOZHANGYANJIUHUODONGDESHUNCHANGHEYANJIUCHENGGUODEZHILIANG。

表1 貝克公共政策研究所研究中心及研究領域
表1 貝克公共政策研究所研究中心及研究領域

表2 貝克公共政策研究所部分項目計劃及研究領域

  三、完善的資金來源體系

  YANJIUSUODEZIJINLAIYUANTIXIWANSHAN,ZHUYAOLAIZIJUANZENG。YANJIUSUODEGUANWANGSHELIZHUANLANTIGONGZAIXIANFANGSHIJINXINGZHUCEHEJUANZENG。JUANZENGZHEKEYIZAIXIANXUANZEZIZHUDEQUXIANG,QUXIANGBAOKUOYANJIUSUOXIASHEDE6GEYANJIUZHONGXIN、YANJIUXIANGMU、LUNTAN、XUESHENGJIJINDENG。YANJIUSUOSHIFUHEMEIGUOLIANBANGSHUIFA501(c)3TIAOKUANDEFEIYINGLIXINGZUZHI,LAIZIMEIGUOJINGNEIDEGELEIJUANKUANKEYIXIANGSHOUMIANSHUIDETIAOJIAN。YANJIUSUOHUODEJUANZENGDETUJINGZHUYAOYOU:

  GERENJUANZENG。GERENJUANZENGBIJIAOCHANGJIANDEFANGSHISHIJIARUYUANZHUOLUNTAN。YUANZHUOLUNTANSHIYANJIUSUODEBIAOZHIXINGHUIYUANLUNTAN。GERENKETONGGUOJUANZENGDEXINGSHIQUDEHUIYUANZIGE。YONGYOUHUIYUANZIGEKEYICANYUYANJIUSUODENIANDUHUIYUANLUNTAN,CANYUGONGGONGZHENGCETAOLUN,YULAIZIGEXINGYEDELINGXIU、ZHENGCEJUECEZHEYIJIYANJIURENYUANJINXINGHUDONG。YUANZHUOLUNTANSHIYANJIUSUOXIYINWAIJIEJUANZENGDEZHONGYAOSHOUDUAN。

  QIYEJUANZENG。QIYEKEYITONGGUOZANZHUYANJIUXIANGMU、JIANGZUOCANYUDAOYANJIUSUODEHUODONGZHONG,BINGCONGYANJIUSUODEYANJIUHEJIANYIZHONGHUODESHOUYI。YANJIUSUOJIESHOULAIZIQIYEDEYIBANJUANKUAN、JUANZENGJIJIN、DAEJUANKUANDENG,QIYEKEYICANYUYANJIUSUODINGQIZUZHIDEQIYEYUANZHUOLUNTANHEZHENGCELUNTAN。ZHENGCELUNTANMUQIANYOUNENGYUANLUNTAN、JIANKANGZHENGCELUNTANHEMOXIGELUNTAN,TONGSHIJIESHOUQIYEZHENDUIYANJIUSUORENHEXIANGMUDEJUANKUAN。

  TONGGUOBUTONGCENGCI,DUOZHONGTUJING,YANJIUSUOHUODECHONGZUDEZIJIN。YI2015NIANWEILI,YANJIUSUODEZIZHU38%LAIZIJUANZENGJIJIN;58%LAIZIQIYE、JIJINHUIHEGERENJUANKUAN;ZHIYOU4%LAIZILAISIDAXUE。

  四、廣泛的研究領域與豐富的項目計劃

秒速赛车6码计划   YANJIUSUODEYANJIULINGYUGUANGFAN,XIASHEDE6GEYANJIUZHONGXIN,LINGYOU12GECHANGQIWENDINGDEXIANGMUJIHUA,KAIZHANZHUANTIZHENGCEYANJIU。GEGEYANJIUZHONGXIN、XIANGMUJIHUATONGGUOFABUYANJIUBAOGAO、GUANGBO、DIANSHIJIEMU、LUNTANDENGDUOZHONGXINGSHICHUANBOSIXIANG,ZAIGONGZHONG、SHEHUIJINGYINGYIJIJUECECENGZHONGKUODAYINGXIANGLI,ZHIJIECANYUGUOHUITINGZHENGHUIYUZHENGCEZHIDINGZHEHUDONG,WEIJUECEZHETIGONGYOUXIAODEZHENGCEJIANYI,ZHIJIEHUOJIANJIEYINGXIANGZHENGFUJUECE。6GEYANJIUZHONGXINDEYANJIULINGYURUBIAO1。

秒速赛车6码计划   YANJIUZHONGXINHUANJUYOUJIAOQIANGDEXIETONGYANJIUNENGLI,RUNENGYUANYANJIUZHONGXINYUBULUJINSIXUEHUIDENG13GEQITAGAOSHUIPINGWAIBUJIGOUHEZUO,YESHIQIKUODAZHENGFUJUECEYINGXIANGLIDEZHONGYAOTUJING。YANJIUSUODE12GEXIANGMUJIHUAYANJIULINGYUZHENGCEZHIXIANGMINGXIAN,ZAIQIGEZILINGYUJUYOUZHONGYAOYINGXIANGLI,BIAO2LIEJULEQIZHONG4GEXIANGMUJIHUADEZHUYAOYANJIULINGYU,LINGWAI,QUANQIUJIANKANGXIANGMU、GUOJIJINGJIXIANGMU、LADINGMEIZHOUCHANGYIXIANGMU、ZONGTONGJINGXUANXIANGMU、ZONGJIAOYUGONGGONGZHENGCEXIANGMU、KEJIZHENGCEXIANGMU、TAIKONGZHENGCEXIANGMU、ZHONGDONGFUNVRENQUANXIANGMU8GEXIANGMUJIHUA,MIANXIANGZHENGCEXUQIU,GUANZHUMEIGUOJIQUANQIUREDIANWENTIKAIZHANYINGYONGDUICEYANJIU,ZAIXIANGGUANLINGYUKUODAZHONGXINDUIZHENGFUJUECEDEYINGXIANGLI。

  五、對我國高校智庫建設的啟示

  BEIKEGONGGONGZHENGCEYANJIUSUOTONGZHENGFUJUECEBUMEN、JUECEZHEBAOCHIJINMIDELIANJIE,TONGDUIZHENGCEZHIDINGYOUYIDINGYINGXIANGDESHEHUIJINGYINGJIAOLIUCHONGFEN,TONGGUOFABUYANJIUBAOGAO、MEITIXUANCHUAN、YUANZHUOLUNTANDENGXINGSHIYINGXIANGDAZHONGYULUN,DUIWOGUOGAOXIAOZHIKUTISHENGFUWUJUECENENGLIJIANSHEJUYOUYIDINGDEQISHI。

秒速赛车6码计划   (YI)MINGQUEMUBIAODINGWEI、ZHUANBIANZHINENGSHITIGAOFUWUJUECENENGLIDEJIBENQIANTI

  DANGQIAN,WOGUOGAOXIAOZHIKUDULIXINGXIANGDUIJIAORUO,DUOYITUOSUOZAIGAOXIAOXIADEMOUGEXUEYUAN,ZHIKUYANJIUFANGXIANGDUOCONGSHUYUSUOZAIXUEYUANDEXIANGGUANXUEKE,KEYANRENYUANTONGSHIYAOWANCHENGJIAOXUERENWU、KEYANRENWU,CANYUBENXIAODEKEYANKAOHEYUPINGJIA,ERGAOXIAOKEYANPINGJIARENGZHUYAOYIKEYANXIANGMU、LUNWENDENGKEYANJIXIAOWEIZHU,ZHIKUDEMUBIAODINGWEIBUQINGXI。FAZHANGAOXIAOZHIKU,SHOUXIANYAOYOUMINGQUEDEFAZHANMUBIAOHEDINGWEI。TONGGUOGAIGEGAOXIAOKEYANPINGJIAFANGSHI,ZHUANBIANZHIKUDEFAZHANFANGXIANG,JINERZHUANBIANZHINENG,FAHUIZHIKUBENSHENDUJUTESEDEGONGNENG。

  (ER)JIANQUANZUZHIJIEGOU、TUOKUANZIJINLAIYUANSHITIGAOFUWUJUECENENGLIDEZHONGYAOBAOZHANG

  WOGUOGAOXIAOZHIKUGENZHIYUGAOXIAO,DUOYIYANJIUZHONGXIN、YANJIUJIDIXINGSHICUNZAI,QUEFAZHUANYEDELINGDAORENYUANHEGUANLIRENYUAN,YANJIURENYUANZUCHENGJIEGOUSONGSAN,NANYIXINGCHENGWENDINGDEZHENGCEYANJIUFANGXIANG,JIANQUANDEZUZHIJIEGOUDUIYUZHIKUDEFAZHANZHIGUANZHONGYAO。ZHIKUFAZHANLIBUKAIFENGFUDEZIJINZHICHI,MUQIANGAOXIAOZHIKUDUOYIXUEXIAOZIYOUZIJINTOURU、SHENQINGKEYANXIANGMUWEIZIJINLAIYUAN,QUDAODANYI,QIESHIYONGFANWEIYUZHIKURICHANGYEWUBUXIANGPIPEI,NANYIMANZUZHIKUFAZHANDEXUYAO,YINGDUOQUDAOZHENGQUZIZHU,GAIGEYOUHUAZIJINGUANLIFANGSHI,BAOZHANGZHIKUPINGWENYUNXINGHEKECHIXUFAZHAN。

秒速赛车6码计划   (SAN)JIAQIANGHEZUOJIAOLIU、XIANGYINGYONGDUICEYANJIUZHUANXINGSHITIGAOFUWUJUECENENGLIDEYOUXIAOSHOUDUAN

秒速赛车6码计划   MEIGUOGAOXIAOZHIKUGONGNENGFAHUIBIJIAOCHONGFENDEZHONGYAOYINSUZAIYUYUZHENGFU、QIYEDEJIAOLIUHEZUOMIQIE,WOGUOGAOXIAOZHIKUQIBUJIAOWAN,ZHIKUTESEBUXIANMING,YINGZHIDINGBAOZHANGYOULIDEHEZUOJIAOLIUZHIDUTIXI,TANSUOFUHEZHONGGUOGAOXIAOTESEDEHEZUOJIAOLIUXINGSHI,KUODAZHIKUDEJUECEYINGXIANGLI。WOGUOGAOXIAOXIANXINGDEXUEKEFENLEITIXI、PINGJIATIXIGENGJIAZHONGSHIJICHUYANJIU,GAOXIAODEKEYANFANGXIANGYUSHEHUIJINGJIFAZHAN、ZHENGFUJUECEXUQIUZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGXIANGTUOJIE,XIANGYINGYONGDUICEYANJIUZHUANXINGDUIYUZHIKUGONGNENGDEFAHUIYIYIZHONGDA,YINCI,ZUOWEIZHIKUDEYITUODANWEIDEGAOXIAO,YAOZHIDINGMIANXIANGZHIKUDEZHUANMENGUANLIZHIDUHEFENLEIPINGJIATIXI,TONGGUOZHENGCEDETUIDONGZUOYONGWANCHENGZHIKUDEGONGNENGZHUANXING。

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